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note cards


undefined, object
copy deck
dow jones industial average
index of stock prices of select companies
ho chi nihn trail
newtwork of paths running between north and south vietnam
enumerated powers
powers specifically granted in the constitution
shawnee chief who formed native american confederation to fight americans
joseph mccarthy
republican senator who claimed communists were taking over the federal government
spoils system
system in wich incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own friends
backing money with silver and gold
nation of islam
group headed by elijah muhammad
war hawk
one who favors war
reconstruction finance corporation
agency established in 1932 to provide emergency relief to large business, insurance companies, and banks
texas revolution
texas's war for independence from mexico
tariffof 1816
a protective tariff designed to help american industries
bill of rights
first ten amendments
affirmative action
program aimed at hiring or including minorities
hydrogen bomb
clara barton
union nurse
hillary rodham clinton
first lady and health care reformer
scopes trial
trial of john scopes for teaching evolution
office of price administration
agency of the federal government that fought inflation
ashcan school
a school of painting that featured urban life and working people with gritty realism
jefferson davis
president of the confederate states of america
home rule
ability to run state governments without the interference of the federal government
san juan hill
location of an important american land victory in cuba
trying to pacify an aggressor in order to keep the peace
gettysburg address
important speech by president lincoln
samuel adams
one of the founders of the sons of liberty
george grenville
financial expert who was appointed prime minister of britain in 1763
f. scott fitzgerald
chiang kai-shek
leader of the nationalist forces in china
national association of colored women; founded in 1896 to improve living and working conditions for african-american women
w.e.b. du bois
first african american to receive ph.d from harvard
john j. pershing
u.s. general who led troops to capture villa
roger sherman
delegate who developed the great compromise
excise tax
tax on goods produced within the country
northwest ordinance of 1787
law that organized the norhtwest territories
john deere
inbentor of the steel plow
herbert hoover
31st president
colonists who were loyal to britain
urban sprawl
the outward expansion of cities
teaty of versilles
the 1919 teaty that ended world war 1
japanese city that was the site of the second atomic-bomb drop
worldwide computer network
mass production
the making of goods in large amounts
ommon sence
pamphlet written by thomas paine that attacked the monarchy
treaty of ghent
treaty that ended the war of 1812
harlem renaissance
african american artistic movement
a style of music characterized by improvisation
hot line
direct phone line between the white house and the kremlin
national bank act
law that set up a system of federally chartered banks
dwight d. eisenhower
american general
deficit spending
spending more than the government receives in revenue
tet offensive
series of vietcong attacks during the 1968 tet holiday
battle won by the americans in 1776
boss tweed
head of new york city's powerful democratic political machine
infromation superhighway
popular name for a proposed computer network
utopian communities
exerimental communities designed to be perfect societies
roger williams
puritan dissenter wh set up a new colony in thode island
war-guilt clause
part of the treaty of versailles in which germany took responsibility for the war
poll tax
money one had to pay in order to vote
bull moose party
nickname for the new progressive party, which was formed to support roosevelt in the election of 1912
axis powers
germany, italy, and japan
new left
name given to the youth movement of the 1960s
niagara movement
insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education
price support
law that keeps prices above a set level
progressive movement
social reform movement in the early 20th century
mccolloch v. maryland
supreme cout case that denied martland the right to tax the bank of the united states
marquis de lafayette
french noble who helped the americans
albert b. fall
secretary of the interior under harding
national road
a federallt funded road,stretching from cumberland,maryland,t vandalia,illinois
war powers act
act that forbids the president from mobilizing troops without congressional approval
rebel forces supported by ronald reagan to overthrow the sandinistas
u.s.s. maine
u.s. warship that exploded in a cuban harbor in 1898
alvin york
american war hero
gi bill of rights
law passed by congress to help servicemen readjust to civilian life
group of nations, including the united states, britain, and the soviet union, who opposed the axis powers
roosevelt corollary
roosevelt's 1904 extension of the monroe doctrine, starting that the united states has the right to protect its economic interests in south and central america by using military force
confinement under guard, especially during wartime
ngo dinh diem
leader of south vietnam
bread line
a ling of people waiting for free food
samuel j. tilden
demoncratic presidential candidate in 1976
fort sumter
union fort in charleston,south carola
john ehrlichman
adviser to nixon
james k.polk
11th president
a segregated neighborhood
long drive
three-month long overland transport of cattle
a vote on whether to remove a public official from office
the belief that women should be equal to men in all areas
clark clifford
a lyndon johnson adviser who became his secretary of defense
bonus army
unemployed world war 1 veterans who marched to washington to demand their war bonuses
national energy act
law that aimed to conserve energy
henry clay
speaker of the house of representatives and political leader from kentucky
eli whitney
invenrot of interchangeable and the cotton gin
john winthrop
leader of the first settlers at massachusetts bay colony
eleanor roosevelt
first lady, social reformer, political advisor
black codes
laws enacted in many southern states that discriminated against african americans
fory pillow
site of confederate massaccre of more than 200 african american war prisoners
list of people in the hollywood film industry who were refused jobs because they did not cooperate with huac
person who is considered the property of another
james farmer
civil rights leader who founded the congress of racial equality
warren court
the supreme court under chieft justice earl warren
pay equility
situation in which women and men recieve equal pay for equal work
search and destroy mission
tactic in which u.s. troops destoyed vietnamese villages
movement whose members sought to drop out of mainstream society
john collier
commissioner on indian affairs
antonio lopez de santa anna
mexican president who fought texans in the texes revolution
a. philip randolph
important african-american labor leader
federal home loan bank act
law passed in 1931 to reduce mortgage rates to save farmers from foreclosure
bessemer process
technique used to make steel from iron
conscientious objector
a person who believes fighting is wrong and therefore does not want to serve in the military
NativeAmericans who lived in the Southwest from avout A.D 300 to 1300
wilmot proviso
bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico
brigham young
leader of the mormons who decided to move to the group west to utah
a worker learninga trade or craft, usually under the supervision o a master
buying on margin
buying stock by paying only a portion of the full cost up-front with promises to pay the rest later
chester a, authur
21st president of the united states
Natibe Americans who lived in the southwest from about A.D. 300 to 1300
gag rule
a rule limiting debate on an issue
truce agreement
upton sinclair
novelist who exposed social problems
concentration camps
prison camps operated by the nazis where jews and others were starved while doing slave labor, or murdered
king george 3
king of england during the american revolution
drafting of civilans to serve in the army
people who opposed any form of government
to make part of, incorporate
students for a democratic society
prominent group of the new left
platt amendment
provisions in the cubian constitution that gave the united states broad rights in that country
north atlantic treaty organization
defensive military alliance of the untied states, canada, and ten european nations
service sector
the part of the economy where businesses provide services rather than material goods
farm workers entering the united states from mexico
intelligence-gathering, or spy, agency of the united states government
cesar chavez
leader of the farm workers movement
company that offers similar products or services in many locations
personal liberty laws
laws passed by norhern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves
lend-lease act
law that allowed lending or leasing arms to any nation "whose defense was vital to the united states"
columbian exchange
early trad across the atlantic ocean
members of a puritan group who established their own congregations
brutal spanish system of using native americans for labor
eisenhower doctrine
policy of the united states that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
monroe doctrine
warning to european nations not to interfere in the americas
limited test ban treaty
treaty that barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere
nikita khruschev
soviet leader
willingness to go to the edge, or brink, of war
l. douglas wilder
nations first african american governor
hiram revels
first african-american senator
fourteen points
wilsons plan for world peace following world war 1
national trades'
early national workers'organization
jim crow laws
laws that helped keep whites and blacks separate
the federalist
essays written by the federalist leaders that defended the constiution
alfred t. mahan
american imperialist and admiral who urged the united states to build up its navy and take colonies overseas
protest tactic in which blacks occupied white-only seats at lunch counters
southern democrat who left the party
war production board
government agency that decided whcih companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
susan b. anthony
leader of the woman suffrage movement, who helped to define the movement's goals and beliefs and to lead its actions
elizabeth cady stanton
leader in the abolitionist and women's right movements
frances perkins
secretary of labor
franscisco franco
fascist dictator of spain
sanford b. dole
american businessman who became president of the new government of hawaii after the queen was pushed out
alliance for progress
a program that supplied aid to latin american
practice of placing the interests of one region over those of the nation as a whole
cottage industy
system in which manufactuters provided the materials for goods to be produced at home
reverse discrimination
discrimination agains whites to make up for past discrimination against others
united farm workers organizing committee
union that fought for farm workers rights
civilian conservation corps
program to employ young men in work projects
organization that fought for famers' rights
landston hughes
thurgood marshall
african american lawyer who led the legal challenge against segregation
radical republican
one of the congressonal republicans who wanted to destroy the political power o slaveholders and to give african americans citixenship and the right to vote
international trade agreement
system for calling people to military service
panic of 1873
financial crisis that started an economic depression
hideki tojo
prime minister of japan during world war 2
debt peonage
a system in which a person is forced to work to pay off debts
ethel and julius rosenberg
activists in the american communist party who were executed as spies
lauro cavasos
appointed secretary of education by president reagan
american system
clay's plan for economic development
Kashaya pomo
natice american group that lived in what is now california
booker t. washington
prominent african-american educator
legislative branch
the branch of govermunt that makes laws
alexander graham bell
inventor of the telephone
owner of a colony
trail o tears
path the cherokee were forced to travel from georgia to indian territory
people opposed to ratification of the new constitution
john marshall
chief justice of the supreme court
the technolofy dominated sock index
salt 1 treaty
treaty to limit nuclear weapons
dorothea dix
reformer who worked for improved treatment of the mentally ill
appomattox court house
site of the confederate surrender
battle of wounded knee
u.s. massacre of sioux at wounded knee creek, south dakota
works progress administration
new deal jobs program
trench warfare
fighting between fortified ditches
name of plan to make native americans part of white culture
manhattan project
secret research project that resulted in the atomic bomb
right to vote
wagner act
law to protect workers rights
cult of domesticity
social customs that resricted women to caring for the house
plymouth colony
second permanent english colony in north america founded by the pilgrims
38th parallel
imaginary line that divides korea at 38 degrees north latitude
panama canal
a channel across central america, between the atlantic and pacific oceans, opened in 1914
john smih
leader of jamestown
horace greeley
newspaper editor who strongly supported the newlyformed republican party
french and indian war
war that gave the british control of north america
national legislature
zimmermann note
message proposing an alliance between germany and mexico
political movement that sought advancement for farmers and laborers
martial lw
rule by the military
termination policy
federal government decision to end gerderal responsibility for native american tribes
union ironclad ship
proclamation of 1763
law limiting the area of english settlement
bank of the united states
a national bank funded by the federal goverment and wealthy investors
the idea that states had the right to nullify or void any law they deemed unconstitutional
daniel webster
a senate leader form massachusetts
introduction to the constitution
black panthers
african american group founded to combat police brutality
intellectual movement that started in europe
ernest hemingway
the divison of power between the federal and state goverments
strurdy cattle accustomed to dry grassland
espionage and sedition acts
laws that enacted harsh penalties against anyone opposing u.s. participation in world war 1
h.r. haldeman
adviser to nixon
dean rusk
secretary of state under johnson
benjamin franklin
philadephia inbentor,writer,and political leader
benito mussolini
fascist dictator of italy
name given the night of november 9, 1938, when nazis in germany attacked jews, their businesses, and their synagogues
friedrih von steuben
prussioa pfficer who helped train american soldiers
gentlemen's agreement
agreement that limited japanese emigration to u.s.
sacco and vanzetti
immigrant anarchists accused of murder
no mans land
the space between armies fighting each other
meat inspection act
law reforming meatpacking conditions, 1906
queen liliuoklani
the hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a recolution started by american business interests
james buchanan
15th president
william jefferson clinton
42nd president
jose marti
political activist who worked for cuban independence
fannie lou hamer
prominent voting rights activist
john foster dulles
secretarty of state
pequot war
a 1637 conflict in which the pequots bttled connecticut colonists
bull tun
battle won by the confederates
ellis island
inspection station for immigrants arriving on the west coast
james weldon johnson
poet and civil rights leader
zachary taylor
american general in war with mexico
bank of the united states
national bank established by congress first in 1791 and then in 1816
great awakening
teligious revial movement in the colonies
interstate commerce act
law granting congress authority to regulate railroad activities
the freeing of slaves
gadsden purchase
purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
joseph stalin
communist dictator of the soviet union
william tecumseh sherman
commander of union troops in gergia and south caralina
salutary neglect
an engish policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
james meredith
african american who won enrollement to the all-white university of mississippi
moral majority
organization formed to fight for traditional values
a neighborhood here people live in shacks
the cutting back of federal regulation of industry
war industries board
agency to improve efficiency in war-related industries
checks and balances
powers given to separate branches of goverment to keep any one from gettion too much power
oliver hudson kelley
farmer who founded the grange
battle that gave americans victory in the war
operation desert storm
the 1991 u.s. attack on iraq to forve the iraqis out of kuwait
kerner commission
commission that reported on race relations in america
george gershwin
a government in which the people elect representatives to govern
american individual who called for america to wtihdraw from vietnam
black power
movement that stressed black pride
gernald r. ford
38th president
the constitutional process for removing a president from office
morrill act
act that helped establish agricultural colleges
telecrommunications act
controlversial law to reform the communications industry
british passenger ship attacked and sunk by germans
eugene mccarth
a democratic presidential candidate who ran on antiwar platform
brown v. board of education
supreme court case in which segregated schools were ruled unconstitutional
honathn edwards
forceful preacher in the great awakening
harriet beecher stowe
author of the antislavery novel uncle toms cabin
congress of racial equality
interracial organization formed to fight discrimination
john l. lewis
president of the united mine workers
tonkin gulf resolution
resolution that allowed president johnson to fight in vietnam
to support neither side
alger hiss
former state dapartment official
sandra day o connor
first women supreme court justice
quota system
a system that established the maximum number of people who could enter the united states from each country
camp david accords
agreements between israel and egypt
battle won by the americans in 1777
mao zedong
leader of the communist forces in china
toyal colony
a colony under the direct control of a monarch
agent orange
chemical that destroyed jungle land
robert mcnamara
secretart of defense under johnson
emilio aguinaldo
filipino rebel leader
hentry kissinger
nixon adciser who helped negotiate an end to the war
treaty of tordesillas
agreement between spain and portugal to explore different lands
civil rights act of 1964
law that outlawed racial discrimination
double standard
set of principles granting one group more freedom than another group
a kind of biased communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions
organization of nations that export oil
freeport doctrine
idea that any territory could ban slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting it
first permanent nglish settlement in norh america
republican party
politica party formed to oppose extending slavery in the territories
trade agreement between canada, mexico, and the united states
famers' alliances
groups of farm organizations
louisiana purchase
land bought from france in 1803
truman doctrine
u.s. policy of sending aid to any nation trying to prevent a communist takeover
national association for the advancement of colored people, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
immigration act of 1965
established new immigration system that allowed more immitgrants into the u.s.
republic of texas
independent nation that was created agter texans defeated mexico in the revolution
ho chi minh
leader of north vietnam
nixons foreign poilcy that attempted realistic politics
pearl harbor
naval port in hawaii
battle of midway
american victory that was the turning point in the pacific war
committee to reelect the president
nixons committee
robert e lee
confederate general
selective service act
law requiring men to register for military service
toger b. taney
chief justice who wrote the ruling in the dred scott case
ida b. wells
african-american reformer who tried to end lynching
freedmen's bureau
government agency that helped former slaves and poor whites by giving out food and clothing and by setting up schools and hospitals
francis gary powers
pilot of an american u-2 spy plane
checks and balances
provisions o the constitution that keep one branch of the government from controlling the other two branches
nineteenth amendment
amendment to the constitution giving women the right to vote
national american women suffrage association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
period when eupopeans began investigating all aspects of the physical world
free speach movement
new left group that attcked business and government
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
treaty ending the war with mexic
american system
clay's speaker of thehouse of representatives and political eader from kentucky
silent majortiy
those mainstream americans who supported nixons policies
joseph smith
founder and leader of the mormons
acaconda plan
three-part union strategy to the cibil war
warren commission
the body that investigated the assassination of president kennedy
dust bowl
area of the great plains made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms in the 1930s
james madison
one of the leaders of the consitutional convention
marshall plan
program under which the united states gave economic aid to rebuild postwar western europe
an equal or fair amount
federal reserve system
national banking system begun in 1913
voting rights act of 1965
act that struck down state laws intended to keep blacks from voting
person who actively tries to protext the envirnment
wade-davis bill
bill passed by congress, and vetoed by president lincoln, that would have given congress control of reconstruction
martin luther king, jr.
leader of the civil rights movement
charles evans hughes
secretary of state under harding
one side in world war 1: great britain, france, and russia, later joined by the u.s
double jeopardy
being tried more than once for the same crime
new frontier
the name given to kennedys domestic program
japanese american citizens league
civil rights group formed by japanese americans
berlin airlift
resupply of west berlin by u.s. and british planes during soviet blockade of 1948
civil service
government administration
civil rights act of 1968
act that banned dicrimination in housing
intolerable acts
a series of laws set up by parliamant to punish massachusetts for its protests against the british
john c. calhoun
vice-president and congressional leader from south carolina
v-e day
victory in europe day, may 8, 1945
woodrow wilson
winner of the 1912 presidential election
division of labor
the assignment of different jobs to different individuals
new deal coalition
voters from different groups that supported the democratic party because of the new deal
george m. pullman
inventor of the sleeping car
sealing sports to prevent other shps from entering or leaving
edmond genet
french diplomat who tried to get american support against the british
william lioyd garrison
abolitionist leader
mikhail gorbachev
last leader of the soviet union
device that sends messages by wires
affirmative action
programs that required special consideration for racial and ethnic minorities of women
new federalism
plan to give ferderal power back to the states
gorbachevs policy of reforming the economy in the soviet union
boulder dam
dam on the colorado river built during the depression to create jobs
chester nimitz
commander of american naval forces in the pacific
rise in the price of gods
habeas corpus
court order that says that a person who is jailed has to appear before the couty to determine why he or she is bein jailed
the growth of cities
munn v. illinois
court case that gave government right to regulate private industry
alfred e. smith
democratic presidential candidate in 1928
dawes act
law that broke up native american resercations
a belief that national interests as a whole sould be mote impotant than what one region wants
atlantic charter
british and american statement of goals for fighting world war 2
agricultural adjustment act
programs to help farmers
hidden saloons and nightclubs that illegally sold liquor
cash crop
a crop grown for sale rather than for the farmer's use
american expeditionary force
the name given to the american military force that fought in world war 1
eddie rickenbacker
famous american fighter pilot
yellow journalism
reporting in newspapers and magazines that exaggerates the news in order to make it more exciting
fatal disese with no known cure, that became a u.s. and world wide epidemic
northwest ordiance of 1787
law that oranized the northwest territories
john brwn brown
fierce opponent of slavery who led a raid that killed five proslavery people
people who built am empire along the west coast of south america, beginning in the 1400s
people who bilt an empire in mexico, beginning in the 1400s
strategic defense initiative
proposed system to defend te united states against missile attacks
hollywood ten
people called before huac who did not cooperate
most decisive battle of the war
payments made by defeated countries after a war
george w. bush
43rd preident of u.s.
omar bradley
american general
protective tariff
tax on imported goods to protect domestic business
great society
name given to johnsons domestic agenda
james a. garfield
20th president of the united states
nathaniel bacon
planter who led a rebellion in 1678 against the gobernor of the vigina colony
land ordinance of 1785
a law that set up a plan for wurveying land west of the appalachian mountains
industrial revolution
a change in the making of goods from small workshops to large factories that used machines
adams-onis treaty
treaty that secured the purchase of florida from spain
mark twain
pen name of the novelist and humorist samuel longhorne clemens
satellite nation
country dominated by the soviet union
florence kelley
social reformer
adolf hitler
nazi dictator of germany
an overwhelming show of support by voters
nat tuner
leader of a violent slave rebellion
systematic murder of 11 million jews and other people in europe by the nazis
restricting the amount of food and other goods people may buy during wartime to assure adequate supplies for the military
martin van buren
eighth president
confederate states of america formed in 1861 by the southern states that seceded from the union
george marshall
army chief of staff during world war 2
judge john sirica
judge inthe trial of the watergate bulglars
urban flight
movement of people away from cities
george callace
a third pary candidate in the 1968 presidential election
thaddeus stevens
one of the leaders of the radical republicans
tennessee calley authority
regional work project of lasting value
the beatles
british rock group that helped popularize rock 'n' roll
confederate war camp
term used to refer to tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without producing evidence
phyllis schlafly
equal rights amendment opponent
army of the republic of vietnam
the south vietnamese military forces
christopher columbus
italian explolter who sailed to north ameica for spain
stonewall jackson
confederate general
new netherland
colony founded by the dutch in 1621
"fifty-four forty or fight!"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a vall for u.s. annexation of the oregon terriotory
great migration
movement of many african americans to nothern cities from the south in the early 1900s
direct relief
money or food given from the government to the needy
terrorist group of white southerners who used violence to keep blacks from voting
revenue sharing
plan for the federal power back to the states
supreme cort
highest federal court in the united states
second great awakening
widespread spirtual movment
an economic system that supports government control over property to create equality
government that has complete control over its citizens and puts down all opposition
valley forge
place where washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778
george bush
reagans vice president elected president in 1988
foraker act
law which ended military rule in puerto rico
house committee on un-american activities
income tax
tax that takes a percentage of an individuals income
fjudicial review
auhority to decide whether a law is constitutional
pre-civil war
kent state universiry
site of protest where national gaurd killed four students
dollar diplomacy
the policy of intervening in other countries to protect u.s. business interests
george o`keeffe
j. robert oppenheimer
scientist who led the manhattan project
sherman antitrst act
law that outlawed trusts
economic opporunity act
act that created numerous antipoverty measures
santo fe trail
trail from missouri to oregon
neville chamberlain
prime minister of great britain before world war 2
gorbachevs policy of openness in duscussing problems in the soviet union
the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
religion founded by the prophet muhammad in the 600s
president nixons plan for ending americas involvement in the war
henry david thoreau
author of walden who practiced ideas of transcendentalism
suspicion of foreign-born people
henry cabot lodge
conservation senator who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations
treaty of fort laramie
treaty that gave native americans control of the central plains
winston churchill
prime minister of great britain during world war 2
split in the christian church that led to protestantism
john f. kennedy
35th president of the united states
temperance movement
movement to ban the drinking of alcohol
site of a key battle in the taxas revolution
equal rights amendment
amendment to the u.s. constitution that would prohibit discrimination agaist women
three-fifths compromise
compromis that allowed states to count tree-fifths of their slaves as part o the population
planned obsolescence
purposely making products to become outdated or wear out quickly
small kingdoms on the lower congo river united under one ruler
white southerner who joined the republican party
rock 'n' roll
form of popular music, characterized by heacy rhythms and simple melodies, that developed from rhythm and blues in the 1950s
new mexico
spanish colonies in norht america
panic of 1837
a series of financial failures that led to an economic depression
movenent to outlaw slavery
franklin delano roosevelt
32nd president
joseph pulitzer
owner of the new york world newspaper
square deal
president rooselvelt's program of progressive reforms
skilled worker employed by a master
colonists who wanted independence from britain
members of a religious group known for its strict beliefs
descent from a common ancestor
massachusetts bay colony
colony founded by puritans in 1630
john d. rockefeller
head of the standard oil company
glorious revolution
overthrow of james 2
edwin l. drake
first person to use steam engine to drill for oil
religious movement based on the belief that everything written in the bible was literally true
saturday night massacre
nixons firing of justice department officials, including the special prosecutor investing watergate
ronald reagan
40th president
spanish explorer
multifamily urban dwellings
series of wars started by europeans to win back the holy land from the muslims
betty friedan
autor of the feminine mystique
zora neale huston
anthropologist and author
domino theory
eisenhowers explantion for shopping communism
valeriano wayler
general sent from spain to cuba to restore oerder in 1896
stephen f.austin
leader of american colony in texes
grover cleveland
22nd and 24th president of the united states
federal deposit insurance corporation
insurance for savings
samuel F.B. morse
inventor of the telegraph
young women who embraced the new fashions and values of the 1920s
baby boom
soaring birthrate from 1946 to 1964
end to fithting the war
little turte
native american leader who led native american confederacy against americans in the battle of fallen timbers
inf treaty
treaty to reduce nuclear weapons
fourteenth amendment
gave african americans citizenship
sam houston
first presiden of the republic of texas
indian removal act
law that forced native americans to move west
glass-steagall act
law that created insurance for bank deposits
manifest destiny
belief that the united states wuld expand across the continent
franklin prierce
14th president
popular sovereignty
idea that people living in a territory should make their own decisions,especially the decision to admit slavery
cotton jin
ili whitney's invention for cleaning cotton
john jay
negotiated a treaty with britain over territory
electral college
a group selected to elect the president,in which each state's number of its senators and representatives in congress
sir edmund andros
governor appointed by the king of england to govern over the dominion of england
peace crops
a program that enlisted colunteers to help in poor countries
payne-aldrich tariff
bill meant to lower tariffs on imported goods
underground railroad
secret network of people who hid fugitive slves who went north to freedom
iron curtain
the division of europe between free and communist countries
major corporation that owns smaller companies in unrelated industries
the jungle
novel by upton sinclair describing meatpacking
republic of california
nation declared by american settlers after defeating mexicans
gone with the wind
popular movie
richard wright
middle passage
the voyage that brought slaves to america
warren g. harding
29th president of the united states
people who created a civilixation in guatermala and the yucatan peninsula,acout A.D. 250 to 900
black tuesday
october 29, 1929, the day the stock market crashed
national industrial recovery act
programs to help industry
king philip's war
conflict between settlers and native americans
stamp act
law passed by parliament to make colonists buy a stamp to place on many items such as wills and newspapers
executive branch
the branh of goverment that enforces the laws
person of mixed spanish and native american descent
cold war
state of hostility between the soviet union and the untied states but without military action
members of a religious group known for tolerance
pulling away from world affairs
human rights
rights and freedoms that al people should enjoy
fordney-mccumber tarriff
high tax on imports adopted in 1922
clarence darrow
famous trial lawyer
john mitchell
attorney general and director of nixons campaign
the practice of strong countries taking economic, political, and military power over weaker countries
native american group that lived on the norhwest coast
to reduce the number of workers on staff
kansas-nebraska acy
law that split nevraska in to the territories of nevraska and kansas and allowed for popular sovereignty there
family assistance plan
nixons welfare reform proposal to give direct relief to poor families
pure food and drug act
law to stop the sale of unclean food and drugs, 1906
rutherford b. hayes
19th president of the united states
berlin wall
barrier build to keep east germans from fleeing to west berlin
daniel burnham
chicago architect
william penn
founder of pennsylvania
people who came to california in 1849 in search of gold
winfield scott
american general in war with mexico
dr. jonas salk
developer of a vaccine to prevent polio
george dewey
u.s. naval commander who led the american attack on the philippines
congress of industrial organizations
labor union
charles grandison finney
an improtant preacher in the revivalist movement
lightning war strategy used by germany again poland
cyrus mccormick
inventor of the mechanical reaper
period of rebuilding the nation afrer the civil war
american gerderation of labor
name of union led by gompers
jane adams
social reformer who helped the poor
eugene v. debs
leader of the american railway union
beat movement
writers who made fun of the conformity and materialism of mainstream american society
louis sullican
early leader of architecture
korean war
war begun when north korea invaded south korea in 1950
northrn democrat who advocated making peace with the confderacy during the cibil war
richard m. nixon
37th president
island off the coast of china
residential town or community near a city
de facto segregation
segregation by custom or practice
great plains
the grassland region of the united states
pendleton civil service act
that implemented merit system in civil service hiring
orville and wilbur wright
brothers who flew the first airplane
union victory
Mound-building people who lived in the ohio river vally
tiananmen square
place in beijing where chinese protesters demostrated against the communist government
georges clemenceau
french premier
richard nixon
president of the united states, elected 1968
william westmoreland
commander of u.s. troops in vietnam
battle of the bugle
german counteroffensive in december 1944
political machine
a group that controlled a political party
union victory
abraham lincoln
president duting the civel war
the lawmaking body of england
freedom riders
civil rights activists who tried to end segregation on national buses
confederate ironclad ship
john hay
u.s. secretary of state
fascist political philosophy of germany under nazi dictator hitler
federal communications commission
government agency that regulates the communications industry
prince henry
protuguese prince who started by europeans to win back the holy land from the muslims
christopher sholes
inventor of the typewriter
treaty of fort laramine
1868 treaty in which the sioux agreed to live on a reservation
samuel gompers
union leader
sojourner truth
former slave who became an abolitionist and women's rights acrivist
fugitive slave act
law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
propositon 187
california law which cut nenefits to illegal immigrants
george eastman
inventor of the camera
sugat act
law passed by parliament to try to raise money
social gospel movement
movement that urged people to help the poor
a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
seventeenth amendment
amendment providing for senators to be elected directly
freedom summer
name of project to win voting rights for southern blacks
a dry grassland with trees and bushes
mass transit
transportation system designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes
fidel castro
ruler of cuba
de jure segreagtion
segregation by law
duke ellington
jazz musician
the giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected
alexander hamilton
an early federalist leader
william seward
secretary of state under presidents lincoln and johnson
teapot dome scandal
scandal surrounding albert fall
articles of confederation
the set of laws that established the first gobernment of the united states
native american woman who served a a guide an interpreter for the lewis and clark expedition
horizontal integration
process in chich a company buys out its suppliers
whig party
political party formed in 1834 to oppose policies of andrew jackson
george patton
american general
robert m. lafollette
progressive wisconsin governor and senator
andrew carnegie
scottish immigrant who became a giant in the steel industry
earth day
annual day to celebrate the environment
benjamin harrison
23rd president of the united states
sitting bull
leader of hunkpapa sioux
neutrality acts
laws passed by congress to ban the sale of arms or loans to nations at war
legal process to formally charge the president with misconduct in office
federal trade commission
a federal agency set up in 1914 to investigate businesses to help enforce the laws
clayton antitrust act
law that weakened monopolies and upheld the rights of unions and farm organizations
dominion of new england
a huge colony formed by the king of england,which included land from southern maine to new jersey
communist rebel group that took power in nicaragua
elastic clause
clause in the constitutionthat allows congress to pass laws necessart to carry out its enumerated powers
treaty of paris
treaty that officially ended the war
student nonviolent coordinationg committee
civil rights organization formed by students
nuclear family
Household made up pf a mother and father and their children
confederate victory in mississippi
civilian soldiers
rural free delivery
system that brought packages directly to homes
transcontinental railroad
a railroad that crosses the entire country
william henry harrison tecumseh
native american leder
pentagon papers
government ducuments that showed the government had no real plan for leaving vietnam
george creel
head of the committee on public information, the governments propaganda agency
bill of right
set of amendements passed to protect individual rights
committees of correspondence
a network of communication set up in massachusetts and virgina to inform other colonies of ways that britain threatened colonial rights
scientific management
using scientific ideas to make work more efficient
douglas macarthur
american commander in the philippines
official approval of the constitution
marbury V. madison
court case that established the power of judicia review
a country that is partly controlled by another, stronger country
charles de gaulle
head of the french government in exile in england
judicial branch
the branch of government that interprets the laws and the constiution
political system where two political parties compete for power
thomas jefferson
main author of the declatation of independence
business owner
community in san francisco that attracted many hippies
the right to vote; a major goal of women reformers
due process of law
all the procedures fr fair treatment must be carried out whenever a citizen is accused of a crime
mass media
means of communication that reach large audiences
newt gingrich
speaker of the house of representatives
the ability of people to work out of their homes
national organization for women
organization that pushed for womens rights
marcus garvey
black nationalist leader
soup kitchen
place where free food is served to the needy
native american leader who fought the british
judicial review
the power of judges to declare a law unconstitutional
hawley-smoot tariff act
law that raised taxes on imports and worsened the depression
social darwinism
theory that taught only the strong survived
frederick law olmsted
developer of central park
religious group that settled near present-day salt lake city
favoring native-born people over immagrants
stono rebellion
a 1739 slave rebellion in charleston,south carolina
great depression
period of bad economic times in the united states that lasted from 1929 to 1941
american indian movement
group that fought for greater reform for native americans
a belief in eqailty
seneca falls convention
convention held in 1848 to argue for women's rights
industrial workers of the world
union of radicals and socialists nicknamed the wobblies
native americans who lived where columbus first landed
moving ones home
emplied powers
powers not specifically stated in the constiution
william mckinley
1896 republican presidential nominee
erie canal
canal that connected the great lakes with the atlantic ocean
william randolph hearst
owner of the new york morning journal san francisco examiner
louis armstrong
jazz musician
decision by a state to leave the union
mary harris jones
organizer for untited mine workers
pueblo religious leader who led an uprising against the spanih
thirteenth amendment
abolished slavery everywhere in the united states
new france
french colony in north america
genetic engineering
method of chaing the genes of living cells
stokely carmichael
leder of black power movement
american individual who suppored the war effort
rough dewey
fighting unit led by theodore roosevelt in cuba
womens auxiliary army corps
women volunteers who served in non-combat positions
dred scott
slave who was briefly taken by his owner into free territory
Mound-building people who lived in the Ohio River Valley
frederick douglass
escaped slave who became a noted abolitionist leader
house of representatives
lower house of the national legislature
the establishment of outlying settlements that ate controlled by a parent county
building up armed forces to prepare for war
andrew ackson
general who led american forces in battle on new orleans
harry s. truman
33rd president of the united states
john tyler
tenth president
a ban on exproting goods to other countries
la raza unida
latino poilitical party
overt favoritism toward native-born americans
ralph waldo
leading transcendetal philosophy that emphasized the truth t be found in nature and intuition
compromise of 1877
the political deal that gave the presidency to hayes and ended reconstruction
northerner who moved to the south after the war
deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people
shays's tebellion
ant-tax protest by farmers
george washingto
led virginia trppos in first battle of the french and indian war
scandal that forved nixon to resign
three mile island
site of a nuclear plant that released radiation into the air
john wilkes booth
assassin of president lincoln
natice americans who lived in the area that became jamestown
interchangeable parts
standardized parts that an be used in place of one another
judiciary act of 1801
law the increased the number of gederal judges by sixteen
joint-stock companies
companies in which investors pooled their wealth with the hope of yielding a profit
thomas pinckney
negotiated treaty with spain ober spanish lands east of the mississipppi river
geraldine ferraro
democraic vice presidential candidate in 1984
olive branch petition
am offer of peace sent by the second continental congress to king geoge 3
chief executive
president of the united states
william howard taft
president from 1909 to 1913, successor to roosevelt
Large african kingdom known for trading
harry s. truamn
president after world war 2
bonanza farm
large, single-crop farms
claude mckay
fair deal
president trumans economic and social program
harpers ferry
location of federal atsenal that john brown raided to gey guns to arm slaves
triangular trade
the pattern ofshipping trade across the atlantic
smugglers who brought alcohol in from canada and the caribbean
declaration of independence
document that said the united states was as independent nation
midnight judge
judge appointed to the supreme court by president adams late on the last ay of his administration
japanese suicide flight
flexible response
policy of using nonnuclear weapons to fight a war
making the sale or use of alcohol illegal
social security act
program that provided aid to people with disabilities and pensions for retired workers
southern stategy
nixons effort to attract southen votes by opposing desegregation
thomas alva edison
inventor of the light bulb
settlement house
community center that addressed problems in slum neighborhoods
land grant
gift of public land to an indibidual or organization
nonaggression pact
agreement between germany and russia not to fight each other
alien and sedition acts
laws that made it harder to become a citizen and created harsh punishments for people who criticize the goverment
srah and angelina grimke
leaders in the avolitionist movement
xyz affair
american anger over bribes demanded by french diplomts
gold standard
backing dollars solely with gold
internet related business
homestead act
act that offered free land to western settlers
dien bien phu
major french outpost captured by the vietminh
gifford pinchot
head of the u.s. forest service under roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
missouri compromise
agreemen that temporarily settled the issue of slavery in the territories
headright system
the birgina company's system in which setters and the family members ho came with them eachr eceived 50 acres of land
Mound-building people who lived in the ohio and mississippi river valleys
george a. custer
colonel in u.s. cavalry
credivility gap
situation in which the u.s. public no longer believed the johnson administration
convoy system
having merchant ships travel in groups protected by warships
entitlement program
prgram that guarantees benefits to particular people
jefferson's political party and ancestors of today's democratic party
u-2 incident
downing of a u.s. spy plane and the capture of its pilot by the soviet union in 1960
the word used to describe racial separation
writer who exposes wrongdoing
officially approve the constitution or an amendment to it
uncle toms cabon
antislavery novel
judiciart act of 1789
law that set up the national court system
medicare and medicaid
health benefits for the elderly and poor
reagans economic policies
lewis and clark
leaders of an expedition to explore the louisiana purchase
vertical integration
process in which a company buys out its suppliers
navigation acts
laws passed by the britsh to control colonial trade
grant wood
state of the union address
message delivered by the presidentonce a year
al gore
clintons vice president, and democratic candidate in 2000 election
environmental protection agency
federal agency formed to decrease pollution
new deal
franklin roosevelts programs to end the depression
credit mobilier
name of company involved in stealing of railroad money
lyndon baines johnson
36th president of the united states
boxer rebellion
chinese rebellion against western influence, 1900
dr. antonia coello novello
named surgeon general by president bush
effort to block soviet influence by making alliances and supporting weaker nations
work stoppages by workers
juan ponce de leon
conquistador who explored present-day florida
suplly side economics
economic theory that tex cuts will increase jobs and goevernment revenues
gasoline based explosive
nuremberg trials
tribunal that tried nazi leaders for war crimes
securities and exchange commission
agency to regulate stock markets
melting pot
a mixture of different cultures living together
situation that occurs when unemployed and inflation rise at the same time
urban renewal
plan to tear down decaying neighborhoods and build low-cost housing
stephen A. douglas
senator from illinois who worked to pass the compromise of 1850
anne hutchinson
puritan dissenter banished from the massachusetts bay colony who fled to rhode island in 1638
william jennings bryan
1896 populist/democratic presidential nominee
edna st. vincent millary
malcolm x
african american civil rights leader
conservative coalition
alliance of business interests, religious people, and dissatisfied middle class voters to support consercative candidates
h. ross perot
texas billinaire who was a third party candidate in 1992 election
economic system in which idividuals and businesses control the means of production
emiliano zapata
mexican rebel
charles a. lindbergh
first person to fly solo across the atlantic
african kingdom around the niger tiver known for metalworking
chinese exclusion act
act that limited chinese immigration
my lai
site of massacre of vietnamese civilians by american soldiers betty friedan
market revolution
economic changes where people buy and sell goodsrather than make them themselves
boston tea party
protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor
african-american settlers in the west
native american chief wh fought against english colonists in the king philip's war
sustem in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
the rehabilitation of old neighborhoods and displacement of lower income people
jimmy carter
39th president
theodore roosevelt
president from 1901 to 1909
the ties between members of a family
plessy v. ferguson
court case that upheld the jim crow laws
ohio gang
hardings friends and advisors
rosa parks
woman who helped start montgomery bus boycott
paul robeson
actor, singer, and civil-rights leader
emancipation proclamation
order issued by lincoln freeing slaves behind confederate lines
tariff of abominations
henry clay's name for an 1828 tariff increase
southern democtats' term for their return to power in the south in the 1870s
a religious gathering that relied on emotional sermons to awaken religious feelings
political party formed to oppose extending slavery in the territories
red cross
relief agenct founded by clara barton in 1881
the planned management of natural resources
huey long
political leader from louisiana who criticized the new deal
policy aimed at easy cold war tensions
bernard m. baruch
leader of the war industries board
calvin coolidge
president of the u.s. seceeded to presidency on death of harding, elected in 1924
political system based on a strong, centralized government headed by a dictator
john c. fremot
republican candidate in the 1856 president election
excessive concern with buying material goods
prince henry
portguese prince who stareed a school for sailors and sponsored early boyages of exploration
rutherford b. hayes
president who ended reconstruction in 1877
contract with america
republican plan for political reform
indentured servants
workers who exchanged their labor for help getting started in america
implied powers
powers not specifically started in the constitution
the grapes of wrath
novel by john steinbeck
thory that countries should acquire gold and focus on exporting goods and owning colonies
andrew jackson
military hero and seventh president
orson welles
actor, director, and filmmaker
democratic-republican party
party started by jackson's followers
general john j, pershing
the commander of the american expeditionary force
central powers
one side in world war 1: germany, austria-hungary, and the ottoman empire
treaty of paris
the treaty that ended the spanish-american war
electral college
electors chosen by the statesto elect the president and vice president
order in which the office of president is filled if it becomes vacant before an lection
sinclair lewis
americanization movement
program to teach american culture to immigrants
a huge farm on which slaves or other workers grow a single crop
hubert humphrey
the 1968 democratic cominee for president
great compromise
compromise made by constitutional convention in which states would hve equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in he other house
procedute for returning a person charged with a crime to the state where te crime was committed
envirnmental protection agencry
agencry established in 1970 to fight polluion and conserve natural resources
judicial power
authority to decide cases involving disputes over the law or behavior of people
bessie smith
blues singer
mary mcleod bethune
head of the office of minority affairs in the NYA
civil disobeddience
the form ofprotest hat calls on people to dispbey unjust aws
national labor relations board
agency to regulate business
william pitt
british leader in the french and indian war
francisco "pancho" villa
mexican revolutionary
andrew johnson
president after lincoln's assassination
social ordering by rank or class
league of nations
an international peace-keeping organization proposed by wilson and founded in 1920
new spain
spanish colony in the new world
davig farragut
commander of the union navy
Aaron Burr
democratic-republican and running mate of thomas jefferson inthe 1800 election
chisholm trial
major cattle route from san antonio, texas,through oklahoma to kansas
southern christian leadership conference
civil rights organization
a frontier home, usually dug into a hill or made from sod
ayatollah rehullah khomeini
iranian religious leder who led the revolution against the shah of iran
the era that prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
bleeding kansa
nickname given to the kansas territory because of the bloody bioence there
harriet tubman
famous conductor on the underground railroad
sellin goods that are difficult to come by for a profit
jesse jackson
civil rights leader and presidential candidate
compromise of 1850
series of measures that wrere intended to settle the disagreements between free states and slavestates
illegal use of political influence for personal gain
david walker
a free african american who urged blacks to take their freedom by force
massive outdoor concert that demonstated rock 'n' rolls poplularity
tenant farming
renting land from landowners for cash
archduke franz ferdinand
young heir whose assassination triggered the war
millard fillmore
13th presdent
gold rush
movement of people to a place in which gold has been discovered
act of seizingsailors to work on ships
allied invasion to liberate europe
united nations
peacekeeping body of nations
robert kennedy
a democratic presidential candidate who ran on aniwar paltform
warsaw pact
military alliance of the soviet union and its satellite nations
geneca accords
peace agreement that split vietnam in two
george mcvlellan
union general
gi bill of rights
law that provided financial and educational benefits for world war 2 verterans
charles cornwalis
british general
a loose alliance of states
hernando cortes
conquistador who defeated the aztecs
new rights
alliance of conservative groups to support sonsercative ideas
reserved powers
powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
the way in which states redraw their election districts
supporters o the new constitution
fifteenth amendment
banned states from denying african americans the right to vote
investments in high-risk ventures
tuskegee normal and industial institute
school headed by booker t. washington
federal securties act
law to regulate stock information
townshend acts
laws passed by parliament in 1767 that set taxes on imports to the colonies
communist group led by ho chi mihn
native american group in eastern north america
boston massacre
conflict between colonists and british soldiers in which four colonists were killed
gloria steinem
journalist who tried to help woem gain political power
in farming,the raising of one or two crops for sale rather than a variety of foods for perspnal use
a way for people to approve changes in laws by a vote
carrie chapman catt
president of nawsa, who led the campaign for women suffrage during wilson's administration
rachel carson
environmentalist crusader in the u.s.
dwight d. esenhower
president of the united states
city that was the site of the first atomic-bomb drop in japan
david lloyd george
british prime minister
upper house of the national legislature
open door notes
message sent by john hay to other countries to protect u.s. trading rights in china
communist rebel group in south vietname
bill gates
extreamly sucessful owner of microsoft, a computer software company
william henry harrison
ninth president
second continental congress
the meeting of colonial delegates that approve the declaration fo independence
grandfather clause
clause that allowed poor, uneducated whites to vote

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