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Terms

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thomas hobbes
believed people are naturally cruel and greedy. believed that only a powerful gov. could ensure an orderly society
heliocentric
based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
autocrat
an absolute monarch who rules with unlimited authority
habeas corpus
principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were good. argued that giv. controls should be minimal and should only be imposed by a freely elected gov.
hypothesis
possible explanation
Copernicus
Polish scholar who proposed heliocentri model of the universe
philip II
wanted to expand spanish influence , strengthen the catholic churchc, and make his own power absolute. divine right
thomas paine
wrote common sense
james II
angered subjects and clashed with parliament. leadership taken over when he went to france
censorship
restricting access to ideas and information
moliere
turned out comedies such as "the miser" that made fun of french society
catherine the great
interested in enlightenment ideas but intended giving up no power and made some limited reforms in law and gov. granted nobles a charter of rights and criticized the institution of serfdom
Baroque
ornate syle of art and archeteture
salon
informal, social gatherings at which writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged ideas
Motzart
composer and performer whose operas, symmphonies, and religious music helped define composition
louis xiv
under reign, french army became the strong, france became wealthy, royal power strengthened
natural law
rule or law that governs human nature
Bach
complex and beautiful religious works for organs and choirs
limited monarchy
gov. in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarchs powers
physiocrat
enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics
Joseph II
granted toleration to protestants and jews. ended censorship and tried to control a catholic church. sold church property to build hospitals and abolished serfdom
natural rights
rights that belong to all humans from birth
enlightened despots
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
balance of power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Rococo
personal, elegant style of art and archetecture feauturing fancy designs
Sir Isaac Newton
formed theory that gravity kept the planets in their orbits around the sun
Adam Smith
british economist who admired the physiocrats and argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity
intendents
royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces
richelieu
louis' chieef minister. tried to strengthen central gov. by destroying power of nobles and huguenots and crash the walls of their cities and outlawed their armis
mercantilism
policy where a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver
divine right
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Magellan
circumnavigated around the world
Handel
german born composer who spent life in england
El Greco
famous for painting portraits of nobles
Wollstonecraft
argued that a woman should be able to decide what is in her own interst
act of supremacy
made the monarch head of the church of englang
Peter the Great
forced the boyars to serve the state and imported western technology adn culture. used autocratic methods to push through social and economic reforms
Voltaire
defended principle of freedom of speech and used wit to expose abuses and corruption. oppsed the slave trade and religious prejudice
absoluter monarch
ruler with complete authority over the gov. and live of the people he or she governs
miguel cervantes
wrote "don quixite" which mocked spains feudal past. he admired the unromantic, earthly realism and foolish heroic idealism
social contract
agreement where poeple give up their freedom to a powerful gov. to avoid chaos
elizabeth I
encouraged english captains to plunder spanish treasure ships
oligarchy
gov. in which ruling power belongs to a few people
Montesquieu
believed the seperation of powers is the best way to protect liberty and each branch of gov. should serve as a check on the others
vasco de gama
first to make it around africa to india
frederick the great
exerted extreme control over subjects, tolerated religious differences, and distributed seeds and tools to peasant
constitutional government
gov whose power is defined and limited by law
laissez faire
policy allowing business to operate with little or no gov. interference
john locke
believed people were moral and reasonable and people should have natural rights
maria theresa
won support and strengthened hapsburg power by recognizing the bureacracy and improving tax collection
Ptolemy
greek atronomer who taught that the earth was the center of the universe
remembrandt
conferred great dignity on merchants and other ordinary middle class subjects
Diderot
produced a 28 volume Encyclopedis to change the general way of thinking by explaining gov., philosophy, and religion
scientific method
painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
oliver cormwell
got leadership when charles I was executed.

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