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utopian communities
Experimental communities designed to be perfect societies.
American Colonization Society
society which established the colony of Liberia, to which freed blacks were sent from the United States. The colony later declared its independence.
Matthew Perry And Japan
He was a commodore who was sent to Japan by President Millard Fillmore to give a letter to the Japanese Emperor to open his doors to trade and to help shipwrecked sailors.
"Log cider and hard cider" campaign
Presidential contest between Martin Van Buren, Democratic incumbent, and General William Henry Harrison, Whig; large meetings and its endless hurrahs; Whigs were confident of victory.
Rail roads
connected the east to the west
Stephen Kearny
American general in war with Mexico
Dorothea Dix
Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients
Cherokee Nation Vs Georgia
1831. Marshall Supreme Court ruled that Cherokees could not sue because they were not a foreign nation.
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
Worcester v. Georgia
Indian tribal council ruled legal by the Supreme Court, Jackson ignored and illegalized it
Roger Taney
(1777-1864) United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens.
Grimke Sisters
objected to male opposition to their antislavery activities
Horace Greeley
Newspaper editor who strongly supported the newly-formed Republican Party
Thomas Gallaudet
set up a school for the deaf in Hartford Ct.
George Caleb Bingham
An American realist artist, whose paintings depicted life on the frontier.
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Revivalism; revival (camp) meetings
Revivalism; revival (camp) meetings
Elias Howe
Inventor who built early sewing machines and won suits for patent infringement against other manufacturers (including Isaac M. Singer) (1819-1867)
Second Great Awakening
second great religious revival in the US. renewal of personal salvation, encouraged women to become more active in society
Advocacy of the abolition of slavery.
two-party system
A political pattern in which two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all the elections.
William Lloyd Garrison; The Liberator
Garrison began publication of the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator; began the radical antislavery movement; wanted immediate abolition of slavery in every state and territory without compensating slave owners; condemned Constitution as a proslavery document
Samuel Gridley Howe
founder of the first American school for the blind students
Brigham Young
became leader and moved to Western frontier and established New Zion on the banks of the Great Salt Lake in Utah; practiced polygamy
Bear Flag Republic
name given to California when they gained independence/U.S. troops occupied and freed California
john c calhoun
vp under jackson, he changed from a nationalist to southern sectionalism
Zachary Taylor
American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States.A Southern slaveholder who opposed the spread of slavery to the territories, he was uninterested in politics but was recruited by the Whig Party as their nominee in the 1848 presidential election.
states' rights
All rights not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution nor denied by it to the states.
Rio Grande
America's claimed boundary of Texas
panic of 1837
A series of financial failures that led to an economic depression
Walker Expedition
William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormon church in 1830 after supposedly being visited by an angel - murdered by a mob in Illinois
Peggy Eaton Affair
her husband died in 1828; cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton; Jackson sided with Eatons; affair helped dissolve cabinet.
A supporter of women's claims to the same rights and treatment as men.
abstinence from alcohol self-control moderation
new prisons in PA where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system
Franklin Pierce
He was was the last president to win the popular and electoral vote in N and S. and the last to serve under the Whigs against Democrats. In the 4 years of his term the Whig party split up into the America(Know Nothing) Party and the Republican Party. 1854
Margaret Fuller
She was the first female foreign correspondent and wrote for Greeley's New York Tribune.
Silver Rush
Asylum movement
reformers proposed setting up new public institutions such as state-supported prisons, mental hospitals, and poorhouses; hope was that the inmates of these institutions would be cured of their antisocial behavior by being treated to a disciplined pattern of life in some rural setting
Webster-Hayne debate
an 1830 debate between Daniel Webste and Robert Hayne over the doctrine of nullification
Rotation in office
Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."
Romantic movement
19th century in Europe, in art and literature, stressed intuition and feelings, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature
6000 members, held property in common and kept women and men separate (forbidding marriage and sexual relations); lack of new recruits killed the organization
Maysville Road Veto
vetoed national funds towards roads, most likely because Jackson didn't like Clay, internal improvements must be done by states
Specie Circular
decree that all public lands must be bought with hard money - gold and silver
John Tyler
He became president (Democrat) one month into Harrison's presidency after Harrison died
cries of "54 40 or fight" it looked like the United States might have to fight Great Britain for control of Oregon; fortunately, they came to an agreement to set the U.S.'s northernmost border at 49 degrees north
the Alamo
Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out and a few weeks later Mexican troops massacred some 350 Teas prisoners.
Gold Rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
First women's rights convention in American History. Issued "Declaration of Sentiments"-declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Ostend Manifesto
a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Luceretia Mott
We headed the first women's rights convention to be held at Sanaca Falls, N.Y. in 1848. AT this convention we warned against the Cult of Domesticity and delivered the Declaration of Sentiments, which is a demandfor woman's rights modeled after the Declaration of Independence.
Timothy Dwight
the Second Great Awakening began with these educated people such as Reverend Timothy Dwight, president of Yale in CT
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
In 1842 Tyler's secretary of state, Daniel Webster concluded a treaty with Great Britain that settled a long-festering dispute over the boundary between Main the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Awarding more than half of the territory to the US
McGuffey Readers
William Holmes McGuffey, a PA teacher, created a series of elementary textbooks that became widely accepted as the basis of reading and moral instruction in hundreds of schools; extolled virtues of hard work, punctuality and sobriety
Winfield Scott
American General who attacked Mexico during the Mexican War
James K Polk
president in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.reduce tarriff, reastablish independent treasury system.
Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter and other novels of his questioned the intolerance and conformity in American life
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
First women's rights convention in American History. Issued "Declaration of Sentiments"-declared "all men and women are created equal" and listed women's grievances against laws and customs that discriminated against them.
New Zion
Sam Houston
He became Texas's president after Texas delegates met and declared Texas independent of Mexico. Houston retreated east to pick up recruits and surprised Santa Anna on a prairie near the San Jacinto River. Houston's army tore through the Mexican lines and forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas. However, Mexican govn't never ratified it.
any group of New England writers who stressed the relationship between human beings and nature, spiritual things over material things, and the importance of the individual conscience
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty ending the war with Mexico
Charles Finney
Second Great Awakening- insisted people control their own fate, denounced alcohol and slavery
Hudson River School
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
Aristook War
James Fenimore Cooper
One of the first major American novelists, known for his book The Last of the Mohicans.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Mexican War
fought in Mexico and Texas in the 1840s and ended in 1847.
Theodore Parker
theologian and radical reformer who lived at Brook Farm
Nicholas Biddle
the president of the Bank of the United States, held an immense and possible unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs
Indian Removal Act
Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Liberty party
group of Northerners formed this party; ran James Birney as their candidate for president in 1840 and 1844; pledged to end slavery with politics
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
An agreement between the U.S. and Great Britain in 1850 guaranteeing that any canal built to connect the Atlantic and Pacific across Central America would be jointly controlled, open to all nations, and unfortified.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
began campaigning for women's rights after they had been barred from speaking at an antislavery convention
Gadsden Purchase
purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-Mexico boundary
Revolution of 1812
second war of independence with England
Southerner fafored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void
Southerner fafored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void
Church of Latter-Day Saints; Mormons
founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 tracing a connection between the Native Americans and the lost tribes of Israel; moved from NY to Ohio to Missouri and finally to Illinois
John C Fremont
ommissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
bank of the united sataes
Antebellum period
period before the Civil War
Samuel F.B Morse
recieved a patent for a "talking wire" or telegraph. Given funds by Congress to runa wire from Washington D.C to Baltimore. May 24, 1844-set up his telegraph in the Supreme Court Chamber in Washington Invention-instant success

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