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Unit 5

Mr. Craig's Unit 5 test ID's


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Charles Guiteau
Disappointed job-seeker who assassinated James Garfield
Depression of 1893
caused by overexpansion, railroads went into bankruptcy
Separate but Equal
segregation was legal
Plessy v Ferguson
supreme court ruling that segregation is legal and didnt violate 14th amendment
Social Darwinism
society based on "survival of the fittest"
Carrie Chapman Catt
president of NAWSA, who led the campaign for woman suffrage during Wilson's administration
Literacy Exclusion Act
people were given literacy test in english to gain admitance into the county
Booker T Washington
founded the Tusegee Instituteand naacp-national association ofor the advacement of colored people
Dumbbell Tenements
a new form of housing that was developed in the early 1900's it was designed as a dumbbell and had more apartments for more families and shared restrooms
Promontory Point
Point in Utah where the Transcontinental Railroad was completed
Little Bighorn
a battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876)
New Federalism
a policy in 1969, that turned over powers and responsibilities of some U.S. federal programs to state and local governments and reduced the role of national government in domestic affairs (states are closer to the people and problems)
Barnum and Bailey
Two performers that put on a Circus in the early 1900's
Homestead Act
Provided free land to settlers who were willing to live on it and cultivate it in 1862
Susan B Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement
Pacific Railroad Act
"AN ACT to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,"
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by stated amounts of two metals (usually gold and silver) with values set at a predetermined ratio
William Belknap
a United States Army general, government administrator, and United States Secretary of War. He is the only Cabinet secretary ever to have been impeached by the United States House of Representatives.
Republicans turned Democrats
Louis Brandeis
an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist
Roscoe Conkling
a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
The Long Drive
driving the herd
Machine Politics
an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
The popular name for members of the people's party, which existed from 1892 to 1912
Dawes Severalty Act
a law that gave land to Indians who left reservations; it tried to speed up assimilation
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Levi Strauss
Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush.
James Garfield
20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
Vertical Integration
Process in which a company buys out its suppliers
use of political influence for personal gain
Gilded Age
Appears to be great but beneath the surface lies corruption, crime, poverty, and disparities in wealth
Jane Addams
Social reformer who helped the poor
The Jungle
Muckraking book by Upton Sinclair that detailed the gross innards of the meatpacking industry
Federal Reserve Act
law meant to prevent bank collapse during financial panic
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
Boss Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
William McKinley
25th U.S. President. 1897-1901 (Assassinated). Republican
Wounded Knee
The Massacre by U.S. soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1809
17th Amendment
established the direct election of senators
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war
Half Breeds
Blaine; republican party was split into two
William Jennings Bryan
1896 Populist/Democratic presidential nominee
Rutherford B. Hayes
governor of ohio who ran for president as a republican in the election of 1876
a type of writer who motivated the public to attack political and social corruption
James B Weaver
general a presidential canidate for the Greenback Party in 1880
Chinese Exclusion Act
In 1882, it prevented entry of Chinese laborers to America
Compromise of 1877
the political deal that gave the presidency to Hayes and ended reconstruction
Slaves that moved from the deep south to Kansas
Robert Lafollette
was the governor of Wisconsin,Leader of the Progressives
(Women's Christian Temperance Union) group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
Chester Arthur
21st president, Republican, taking office after assassination of Garfield, revitalized the US Navy and ironically lead the charge of civil service reform
William H Taft
27th US president
John D Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Mongrel Tariff
Tariff of 1883, a compromise measure that satisfied nobody. Duties were lowered on a few items, but increased on most manufactured goods.
the political orientation of those who favor progress toward better conditions in government and society
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
leader in the abolitionist and women's rights movements
Panic of 1873
Financial downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
Mulligan Letters
a series of letters written by James G. Blaine to a Boston businessman, Warren Fisher Jr., that indicated Blaine had used his official power as Speaker of the House of Representatives to promote the fortunes of the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad.
Jim Crow Laws
racist laws against blacks in the south
Jacob Riis
a photo Journalist in the late 1800s whose book how the other half lives exposed the awful conditions of NYC's slums and poor people
Republicans led by Roscoe Conkling who preferred the status quo
Theodore Roosevelt
26th U.S. President. 1901-1909. Republican
Ida B Wells
leader in the battle against lynching
gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person's term ended
Central Pacific
A railroad company from Sacramento, California.
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
JP Morgan
Banker he bought out Carnegie's steel company and named it Bessemer Steel
Fort Laramie
Area in the Wyoming territory where a treaty was signed by United States and the Lakota nation, Yanktonai Sioux, Santee Sioux, and Arapaho in 1868 guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.
a house built of sod or adobe laid in horizontal courses
Francis Willard
Founder of the WCTU
Gospel of Wealth
The belief that the rich should give back to society.
Credit Mobilier
name of company involved in stealing of railroad money
Florence Kelley
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
established a procedure by which voters cast ballots for or against proposed laws
Whiskey Ring
Treasury officials collaborate with distillers to get around excise tax
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
Seneca Falls Convention
convention held in 1848 to argue for womens rights
Charles Evans Hughes
United States jurist who served on the Supreme Court (1862-1948)
Horace Greeley
United States journalist with political ambitions (1811-1872)
James G. Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Morrill Act
Granted lands to the states from the public domain to support new state colleges
Hiram Johnson
was a leading American progressive and later isolationist politician from California;
Lincoln Steffens
Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
Comstock Lode
gold and silver discovered by henry comstock
Benjamin Harrison
23rd U.S. President. 1889-1893. Republican
Union Pacific
A railroad company from Nebraska.
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
Woodrow Wilson
28th U.S. President. 1913-1921. Democratic
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
Sherman Anti Trust Act
this was a law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trust that restrained free trade
Upton Sinclair
United States writer whose novels argued for social reform (1878-1968)
Pendleton Civil Service Act
jobs based on cmpetence rather than spoils

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