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POLY SCI 101-2


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How Americans Vote: explaining citizens decisions.
Political Scietists focus on 3 elements for voters decision
Party ID
Candidate Eval
Policy Voting
Mandate Theory of Elections
Idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics. Politicians + Theory.
Policy Voting
Electoral choices that are made on the basis of the voters policy preferences and on the basis of where the candidates stand on policy issues.
Electoral college
Ameri. Institution created by constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors schosen by state parties. Although the electoral college vote usually reflects a polular majority, the winner take all give clout to big states.
Electoral college was created so...
president be selected by nations elite. Since 1928 it is practice to vote for pres. that won pop. vote. meet in dec
EC. Each state has as many Electoral votes as it has
US senators and representatives. The state parties select slates of electors, positions they use as reward for faitful party sr
EC- Aside from Maine and NEbr
Aside from these, each state has a winner take all sys.
EC- if no candidate receives and electoral college maj-
election is thrown nto house
Elections acomplish 2 tasks
select policymakers
shape public policy
Retrospective Voting- affecting policy
What have you done for me lately?
ie. economy down, no reelect
Elections are
centerpeice of democracy
Interest Group
An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the plicy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups puruse their goals in many arenas.
Theories of Interest Group Politics
pluralist theory
elite theory
hyper fluralist theory
I.G. Theory

Pluralist theory
Theory of government and politics emhasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
I.G. Theory

Elite Theory
Theory of goverment and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upperclass elite will rule.
I.G. Theory

Hyperpluralist theory
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that goverment is weakened.
Pluralism and Group Theory
-Groups provide key link between people and gov
-Groups compete
-No one group is likely to become too dominate
Pluralism and Group Theory CONT
-Groups usually play by the rules of the game
-Groups weak in one resourse can use another
Elites and the Denial of Pluralism
-Numerous groups prove nothing bc unequal power
-Awesome power heldy by largest corp
-The power of few is fortified, interlock direct
-Other groups may win minor, but corp prevail big dec
Interest group liberalism
holds all IG demands are legit, it is gov job to adv all
Iron Triangle
-IG leaders for policy x
-Gov agency in charge of x
-congressional committee and subciomittee handling x
exercise + power over specific policy areas
Hyperpluralists main critism
Relations between IG and gov are too cozy, hard choices rarely made, GRIDLOCK
Potential Group
All the people who might be IG members bc they share scommon int. Almost always +
Actial group
Part of potential group consiting of members who join
Collective good
Something of value, Money,, tax write off, prestige, air, that cant be withheld from group member.
Free-Rider Program
The problem faced by unions and other groups when people dont join bc they can benefit wo work. big group big prob
Olsons law of large groups
Principle stating the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of col good
Selective benefits
Goods such as info, discounts, groups ins rates, that a group can rest. to non members
Single Issue Groups
IG that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
How interests Groups try to shape policy
Going Public
-part time avail for hire
-reg paid employees if corp union
comm by someone onther than citizen directed to gov dec maker with hope of infl dec
4 ways lobbyists help congress
-Imp Source of info
-Help pol w/ strat to pass leg
-Help from cam strat and get group behi reelct
-They are a source of ideas and innovations
Direct gr inv in electoral process. groups can help find campaigns, prov test, and get members to work for cand. PAC!
Political Action Commities
1974 camp finance reform created it. Corp, union, IG register it with FEC which will monitor expenditures
IG go to court in hope of getting spec. rulings
Amicus Curiae Briefs
Legal briefs sub by 'friend of the court' for purp of raising + pts of view and presenting info no contained in breifs of formal parties.
Class Action Suits

(remedy past wrongs)
Direct judicial strategy emplyed by interest group, enabling a group iof people to combine grev. into 1 suit
Gonig Public
raising awareness and apealling to public for support
Types of IG
-Economic (labor, business)
-Consumer/Public Interest
Union Shop
provision found in some coll bargaining agree requiring all emp of a bus to join union w/i 30 days
Right-to-work Law
state law forbitting req that workers must join a union to hold jobs
Public interest lobbies
organiz. that seek a collective good, the acievement of which will not selectively and materially bene the mem or actov of org
Members of Congress; Composed of
535 Members
-100, 2 / state
-435, are members of House Rep
Those already holding office. In congressional elections they usually win.
Members of Congress engage in 3 primary activities that boost their chance of reelection
-Credit Claiming
-Position Taking
(weak opp. Camp Spend)
pt of Credit Claiming
Activities of members of Congress that help consituents as indicudals, cutting through byureacratic red tape to get ppl what they think they have the rt to get
Pork Barrel
pt of Credit Claiming
The mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, collges, and insti. available in a congress district
Money for Congressional Camp comes from
-30% PAC (give most of the money to inc. who are likely to win anyway : aff policy)
How Congress is organized to make Policy
-Congress Leadership
-Committees and Subcomm
-Caucuses (inf org of cong)
-Cong Staff
Bicameral Legislature
A legislature divided into two houses. Congres and every american state leg are bicam except NEB
Each state 2 Sen & REP by POP
The house
4xs larger than senate
+ Party loyalty, line vote
+ Power Sr. Reps
- initiate revenue, impeach
House Rules Committee

(Speaker of House appt committee members)
Instit unique to the House Of Rep that reviews all bills (-rev, budget, appropriations) coming from the House Comittee before they go to the full house
The Senate
- diciplined, centralized than house
- more = in power than house
- filibuster
-ratify treaties,conf prez nom, try impeach officials
Strategy unique to senate where opponets of a piece of legislation try to talk it to death, based on the tradition of unlimited debate. 60 members present and voting can halt a filibuster.
Speaker of the House

(allied with maj party lead, stepping stone to SofH)
Leader of the House
-office mandated by CONST
-Chosen in practice by the marjority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to suceed the prez
Speaker of the House duties
Presides over the House when in session
-Plays a major role in making comm ass
-Appt or plays key role in app the party leg leaders, staff
-Exerc subst cntrl over which bills get ass to which comm.
Majority Leader
-Princ partisan ally of the Sof H or the partys manager in the Senate.
Majority Leader duties
-scheduling bills
-influencing committee assignments
-rounding up votes in behalf of the partys leg pos
Party leaders who work with the maj and min leaders to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.
Minority Leader
The principal leader of the minority party
Committees regularly hold hearings to investigate problems and possible wrongdoing and to oversee the exec branch. MOST OF ALL
they control the congressional agenda and guide legislation from intro to send off.
4 types of Committees
Standing Committee
Separate Subject matter commitees in each House of Congress that handle bills in diff policy areas
Joint Committee
Congressional comittees on a few subject matter areas with membership drawn from both houses. Economy, Taxation
Conference Committee
Formed when the Senate and House pass a bill in different forms. Oarty leadership aoots members from each house to iron out diff and bring back 1
Select Committees
Congressional committees appt for a specific purpose, such as Watergate investigation.
Legislative Oversight
Congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly trhough hearings.
Oversight is a check
\Exec Br. by Congress
-cut budget
-refine existing pol. and respond to new problems
Through oversight, by means of obtaining feedback
congress can keep track of implementation of public policy
Members seek Committees that will help them achieve 3 goals
-opportunity to make changes in policy imp to them
-influence in Congres
Committee Chairs
-most imp influencers of committee agenda
-schedule hearings, hire staff, appt subcom, manage bills
Seniority System
Members who served longest in Committee became chairs (til 1970)
(congressional) caucuses
Group of members of Congress that share some interest of characteristic.
-Int Gro w/i congress
Congressional Staff
-Personal Staff
-Committee Staff
-Staff Agencies
Staff Agencies include
CRS- Congress Research Serv
GAO- Govern Account Office
CBO- Congress Budget Office
proposed law drafted in precise legal language, anyone can draft, only member of House, Senate can submit
Amendment 22
limits prsident to 2 terms
political equivalent of an indictment in crim law, prescribed by the CONST. The HofRep may impeach the pres bu maj vote for treason, bribery or other high crmes or misdem
vents and scandal surrounding break in at DNCOMM headq. and the cover up in 72. Nixon res.
25th Amendment
permits the VP to become acting pres if both the vice pres and the pres cab determine that the pres is disabled. OUtlines how a recoup pres can reclaim job
National Security
Powers of President
-Serve as Comm in Cheif
-Make treaies w/ nations
-Nominate ambassadors, iwth agree of senate
-Recieve ambassadors, dip rec.
Powers of the President
-State of Union to congress
-Recomm. Leg.
-Covene both houses of Cong
-Adjourn Cong if the house and Snate cant agree
-Veto Leg (congress may overu)
Powers of the President
-"Take care laws be faithfully executed"
-Nominate official
-Request written op of admin
-Fill admin vacancy during congress recess
Powers of the President
Grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses (not impeachment)
Nominate federal judges
National Security Council
1947 to coordinate the pres foreighn and military policy adv.
-president, vp, sec of state, sec of def, and its managed by pres natl sec assistant
Council of Economic Advisors
three member body appt by president to advise the president on economic policy
Office of Magement and Budget
Office grew out of Bureau of Budget 1921
-handful of political appt and 100's skilled profs. performs both managerial and budgetary functions
CONST POWER of pres to send a bill back to congress
-2/3 overrides
Pocket Veto
Veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10days of submitting a bill to pres
War Powers Resolution
1973- Law passed in reaction to americanfighting in Viet and Cambodia. Req pres to consult w/ Congress before declaring war. or to w/d forces w.i 60 days if not cong app. Presidents view the resolution as unconst
Legislative Veto
asserts the Sup Court would find the leg veto in violation of the doctrine of sep of powrs
sudden, unpredictable and pot dangerous evet requiring the pres to play the role of crisis manager.
structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit princple and behaves w impersonality. Govern modern states
Bureaucratic Myths
-Americans dislike
-Growing bigger. (Emp are)
-Most fed bur work in DC
-ineffective, inefficient, mired red tape
Hiring and promotion system based on political reasons rather than merit or competence.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
-1883 an act that created a fed civil service so that hiring and promotionwould be based on merit
civil service
system of hiring and prmotion based on merit and teh desire to create a nonpartisan gov
Merit Principle
using entrance examsand promotion ratings to reward qualified individuals
Hatch Act
federal law prohibiting gov employees from active part in partisan politics
Office or Personnel Management
office in charge of huring for most agencies of the fed gov using elaborate rules in the process.
Senior Executive Service SES
GS16-18; elite cader of 9000 fed gov managers,estb by Civil Srv Ref Act 1978, who are mostly career offical but include some pol appt who do not requre senate conf
Plume Book
Congress publishes positions avail for direct pres appt, often w Senate confirm. 400 jobs
Cabinet Dept
-headed by sec
-undersec, dep undersec,asst sec
-dept of justice head attn gen
Independent Reg Agency
govern agency responsible for some sector of the eco, making and enforcing rules to protect the pib interest. judges disputes
Government corporations
provide service that could be provided by piblic sector. US postal service
Independent Exec Agencies
all those not cabinet dept, inde regulatory agen, and gov corp
-General Serv, landlord
-Natl Sci Foun, NASA
Policy Implementation
the stage of polcymaking bs the estb of a pol and the conse of the pol for the ppl it affects. Impinvolves translating the goals and obj of a pol into an operationg on going program
Implementation INC 3 elements
-Creation of a new agency or assn of new resp to old agency
-Translation of goals into rules and dev of guidelines for prog
-Coord of resources and personel teo acheive intended goals
Why best laid plans sometimes flunk implementation
-Program Design
-Lack of Clarity
-Lack of Resources
-Administrative Routine
-Administrators Dispositions
Standard Operating Procedures
used by bur to bring iniformity to complex orgs. improving fairness and makes personnel interchangeable
Administrative Discretion
authority of admin actors to select among various responses to a given problem
Street Level Bureaucrats

police, lower judges, welfare workers
Micael Lipsky; reffering to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact wit the piblic and have considerable admin disc
the use of governmental auth to control or change some pracatice in private sector, pervade the daily lives of ppl and institutions
Munn v Illinois
upheld right of Gov to regulate
decade later ICC
Command and Control Policy
existing system of regulation whereby gov tells bis how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders
Incentive Syive
a more effect and efficient policy than command and control, in the inc sys market like strat are used to manage plicystem
the lifting of resriction on bis, ind, and prof act for which gov rules were estb and that bur had been created to admi
Regulation Contains these 3 elements
grant of pwer and set of dicrections, set of rules and guidelines, some means of enforcing
executive orders
regulations org from the exec brach , one method pres can use to control bureauc
Iron Triangles 3 main elements
-Congress Sub Comm
-Interest Groups
Presidents try to control bureaucracy
-Appt the right pple to head agency
-Issue orders
-Tinker w an agency bidget
-Reorganize agency
Congress tries to control the bureacracy
-Influence the aoot if agency heads
-Tiner with an agencys bidget
-hold hearings
-rewrite the legislation or make it more detailed
iron triangles
mutually dependent relationship bw bur agen, ineterest grou, and congress comm and sub comm. Dominate some areas of policy making
federal bur has grown or shrunk
Standing to Sue
req hat plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which dep on whether they have sust or are likely to sust a direct and subst inj from a party or gov action
Class Action Suits
lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated
justiciable disputes
holds that a case must be capable of being settledas a matter of law rather than on other grounsd as is commonly the case in leg. bodies
orgiginal jurisdiction
the jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, us trial. determine the facts
appellate jurisdiction
hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. do not review fact record only legal issues inv.
district courts
the 91 federal courts of orig juris. they are the only fed courts in which trials may be held and in which juries may be impaneled
Courts of appeal
appelate courts emp to rev all final dec of district crts, except in rare cases. Also, hear appeals to orders of many fed reg agencies.
Supreme Court
The Court ensures uniformity in interpreting natl laws, resolves conflicts among states, miaintns natl supremacy
Supreme court Jurs
has both orginal jurisdiction and appelate jurs, but unlike other fed courts it controls its own agenda
Original jurisd for SC
-Foreign Dip
-State v State
-2 or more States
-Btw one state and citizens of another state
-between a state a for country
Appellate jurisdiction of SC
(fed route)
-US courts of Appeal
-Court of Appeals for the fed circuit
-Leg courts
Appellate Jursd of SC
(State Route)
State courts of last resort
Senatorial Courtesy
unrwritten trad. nominations for sate level fed jud posts are not conf if they are app by sen of the pres party from the state in which the nom wil serve
How Courts Inf Pol
Accept cases-
Make Dec
Implement Crt Dec
solicitor general
3 in Dept of Justice. in charge of the appellate court litigation of fed gov
statement of legal reasoning behind a decision
stare decises
let the decision stand
how similar cases have been decided
original intent
veiw that the CONST sould be interpreted acc to the original intent of the framers. CONSERV
judicial implementation
how and whether court decisions are translated into actial policy, thereby affecting the beha of others. *crt rely on gov to enfo
Marbury v Madison
1803. john marshal right of SC to determin meaning of CONST- estb judicial review
Judicial Review
power of courts to det whether acts of Congress, exc, are in accord with COST.
US v Nixon
1974 case in which Sup Crt unan held that the doctrine of exec priv was implicit in the CONST but could not be ext to prtect documents relevant to crim prosecitions
Judicial restraint
judicial phil in which judges play minima policymaking roles, leaving that duty stricly to the leg
Judicial Activism
jud phil in ehich judges make bold policy dec. even charting new CONST ground. Adv of this approach emp that teh crt can correct
political questions
a doctrine dev bu the fed crts and used as a means to avid deciding some cases, prinicipally those involving conflicts between the president and congress
statutory construction
interpretation of an act of congress. congress passes new leg to clariy existing laws, in some cases
eco system in which ind coprs, not gov own the principal means of prod and seek profit
mixed econ
economic sustem in which gov is deeplu incolcved in eco dec through its role as reg, consumer, sub, taxer, emp, borrower
multinational corps
businesses with vast holdings in many countries, many of which have annual budges exceeding that of for gov
Securities and Exchange COmmision
federal agency created by new deal that regulates stock fraued.
labor union
organization of works intendned to engange in coll bargaining with employer
collective bargaining
negotiations between reps of labor unions and management to dtermine pay and acc working cond
unemployment rate
measured by the Bureau of Labor Stats. the proprtion of the labor force actively seeking work, but unable to find jobs
rise in prices for consumer goods
consumer price index
key measure of inflation that relates in rise in prices over tiem
laissez faire
principle gov should not meddle in econ
monetary policy
based on monetarism monetary policy is the maniplation of the supply of $ in private hands by which the gov can cotrol the econ
econ theory holding supply of $ is the key to nations econ health. Believe that too much cash and credit produces infl
main instrument for maimg monetary policy in the US
created 1913 to reg lending of banks
FED RES SYST acc note
reg interest rates for borrowed $, regulates amt of $ available for everyone to use.
if int is down, more will borrow, thf more money in econ, thf realtors raise prices
Fiscal Policy
the policy that describnes the impact of fed buget. taxes, spending, borrowing- on the econ. Almost entirely det by congress and pres- budget make
Keynesian Econ Theory
gov spending can help wether ups and downs. Gov should stimulate econ when it sags
Supply-Side Econ
too much income goes to taxes so too little money is avail for purchasing, and the solution is to cut taxes and return purch power to cons
World Trade ORg
International ORG that reg trade
economic policy of shielding an econ from imports
antitrust policy
ensure comopetition and prevent monopoly
Food and Drug Admin
approving all food prducts and drugs sold in the US
National Labor Rel Act
guarantees workiesr the right of coll barg sets down rules to protect unions and reated NATL labor Rela board
Social Welfare Policies
Provide benefits to individuals either through entitlement or means testing
Entitlement programs
benefits that certain qualified ind are ent by law regardless of need. SS and MEDICARE
Means Tested Programs
Gov programs available only to ind below poverty line
Income distribution
shares of the national income earned by various groups
amount of funds colelcted between any two points in time
value of assets owned
poverty line
method used to count the poor, considers what a family must spend fo an austere standard of living
feminization of poverty
the increasing concentration of povery among wommen esp unmarried women and their children
progressive tax
tab by which fov takes greater share of the income of the rich than of the poor
proprtional tax
tax by which fov takes same sare of incorm from everyone rich or poor, ie 20%
Regressive tax
tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily on lower income groups- sales tax.
Earned Income Tax Credit
ETC a negative income tax that provides income to very poor ind in lieu of charching them fed income taxes
Transfer payments
transfer money from fed to ind
SS act of 1935
created SSprogram and national assistance programs for the pooor children, afdc
Personal REsp and work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
-each state would recieve a fixed amt of income to run its welfare programs
-welfare would have to find work wi 2 yrs or lose ben
-lifetime max 5 years
Temporary Assist for Needy Families
363/ mo. poorest of poor
means tested
Social Sec Trust Fund
bank account into which SS contributions are depsoited and used to pay out eligible recip

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