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Hepburn Act
Authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1906 to tighten regulations on railroads after McClure's published Ray Stannard Baker's "Railroads On Trial."
George Horace Lorimer
Energetic temporary editor Cyrus Curtis hired from the Boston Post. Curtis believed he could have similar success with a men's magazine and he managed to stay on the job until 1937, creating one of the nation's greatest publishing successes.
Stanley Resor
In 1916, he became the president of J. Walter Thompson agency firm; He employed research and the social sciences, especially psychology, to help advertisers in their sales efforts.
Briton Hadden
Founder of the Time magazine along with Luce. He was the editor for the first 3 years in which he had the peculiar writing style known as "Time style.""Cinematic" style for movie star, "socialite" for one involved in high society, and "great and good friend" for mistress. It departed from journalistic objectivity since opinions were inserted in the articles. He died 6 years after it was founded.
Vance Packard
In his 1957 book, The Hidden Persuaders, he claimed that advertisers used symbols in their messages to reach consumers' subconscious and stimulate the real reasons behind purchases.
Upton Sinclair
Maybe the most well-known of the muckraking journalists. The Jungle, a book criticizing the meat-packing industry led to the passing of the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. He was a socialist committed to social justice, and he saw himself as a critic of a "materially prosperous but spiritually starving" generation.
Helen Landsdowne
Copywriter for Resor and she developed the actual ads; Married Resor and they continued to run the company; Advertised for Woodbury Soap, "For the skin you love to touch"; Advertised for Palmolive Soap, "Keep That Schoolgirl Complexion";The couple employed the device of appealing to the emotions and the subconscious.
Gabriel Heatter
an American radio commentator whose World War II-era sign-on ("There's good news tonight") became both his catchphrase and his caricature. He also gave the self-help group Alcoholics Anonymous its first national exposure with a 1939 broadcast, and earned an unusual reputation---even in a less media-driven and cynical time---for morale boosting during some of the nation's most arduous days.
Arthur Kallett
was a director of Consumers Research who became the first staff director of Consumers Union and founder of its magazine Consumer Reports.
Upton Sinclair
A socialist best known for his expose of the meat-packing industry, The Jungle
Calvin Coolidge
His win to the presidential nomination of 1924 was the first presidential convention to be broadcast. 20 stations broadcast his inaugural address.
Milton Berle
American comedian and host of Texaco Star Theatre - first popular comedy; Show came from radio to TV.
Marion Harper Jr.
began in McCann-Erickson's mailroom in 1939, focused on the research department and became copy research manager in '42. After serving as assistant to founder and President H.K. McCann, Harper in 1948 succeeded McCann. He stepped up motivation research and ad pretesting techniques, began acquiring agencies and by 1961 "turned the ladder horizontal," creating Interpublic Group of Cos., a conglomerate operating separate (and conflict-free) agency divisions along with one-stop, integrated collateral services.
Henry Luce
Founder of the Time magazine along with Hadden, which went onto become most prominent publishing company in the nation. It was to be a magazine created on a "new principle of complete organization" with materials appearing in a brief organized manner. He also began Fortune magazine.
William Bernbach
Perhaps more than any other person in advertising nurtured and symbolized the creative hurricane of the 1960s; He joined with others in establishing Doyle Dane Bernbach in 1949; The most memorable work of the agency was done to introduce and sell t American consumers a humble little automobile called the Volkswagen (German for "people's car"). The VW campaign advised people to "Think small."
Freedom of speech and expression, worship, want, and fear
Four Freedoms
Orson Welles
had a Halloween program on CBS in 1938. His dramatization of H.G. Wells' War of the World terrified and panicked listeners (some believed it to be real).
Cyrus H.K. Curtis
developed Ladies' Home Journal and remained as publisher along with help of wife. He also formed the Curtis Publishing Company, which dominated the magazine industry and stirred competition. Curtis has more great success in reaching millions in circulation for Ladies' Home Journal. He also paid $1,000 for a struggling, unillustrated 16-page weekly that was dwindling rapidly. It became a successful men's magazine, Saturday Evening Post, and appealed to the middle class. By 1918 he had a third publication, Country Gentleman.
Herbert Croly
founded The New Republic magazine of public affairs and was of an entirely different nature for the 1960s.
Richard Harding Davis
"hero of our dreams." He was America's best known artist and war reporter. Reported the Boer War in South Africa and the Spanish-American War.
Easter Parade
10 women smoking cigarettes marching in the Easter parade, making smokers of women; under the guidence of PR counsel Edward Bernays, American Tobacco encouraged women in the 1920s so smoke cigarettes in public be smoking with social equality & with glamour. The campaign began with debutantes smoking while walking in NYC's 1923 Easter Parade.National advertising related smoking to feminine beauty.
F.J. Schlinck
an American consumer rights activist. He co-wrote the book 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs with Arthur Kallet, and co-founded the watchdog group Consumers Research.
Edward Clarke
Helped revive the Ku Klux Klan; Created a national way of organization amongst the Klan.
Amos Kendall
The first PR counselor; Served in essence as a press secretary & campaign manager for Pres. Andrew Jackson; Transformed America from an agrarian republic to a capitalist democracy (assisted in)
Floyd Gibbons
WWI reporter for the Chicago Tribune. He gained fame with his eyewitness account of German submarine's sinking of the British cruiseliner Laconia in 1917. Lost an eye in the war.
Robert Underwood Johnson
The Century's associate editor who suggested new ways to reduce costs and proposed that some bold new editorial project be intitiated to restore lagging staff morale
Frank Munsey
He was a magazine and newspaper publisher. His most popular magazine, Munsey's, was a popular pulp magazine that was filled with special interest stories.
Gugielmo Marconi
His most publicized experiment was the simultaneous transmission and reception of a transatlantic signal in 1901. In 1907 his company began sending transatlantic wireless messages for the public.
catapulted radio technology into national prominence since coverage increased public awareness of wireless communication. The Radio Act of 1912 was passed partly because of the disaster.
War Advertising Council
Volunteers from ad agencies, media , and business joined to produce and distribute ad campaigns supporting many aspects of the national effort to win WWII. Many of the ads it produced were part of the national effort to raise money for the was through the sale of war bonds to the public. Means by which the radio industry could handle the inordinate number of requests it received to promote a huge variety of worthwhile projects associated with the war effort. The council was infinitely more successful than its WWI counterpart, so successful that its work was converted to peacetime. The organization dropped "War" from its title and became simply the Advertising Council. Campaigns developed: Smokey the Bear (prevention of forest fires), Keep America Beautiful ("Every litter bit hurts"), the USO, the United Community Funds, and Better Schools
Jacob Riis
A photojournalist who's work in the 1880s and 1890s led to reform. He photographed the conditions of the most destitute in New York City.
The Octopus
The Epic of the Wheat a California Story is a book written in 1901 by Frank Norris. It chronicles the conflict between local wheat growers and a predatory railway company.
George Creel
newspaper editor, writer, and devotee of P. Wilson who headed the CPI.
John J. Johnson
founded the Negro Digest and then Ebony with a goal to emphasize the positive aspects of Negro Life.
Claude C. Hopkins
Kennedy's replacement; Shared Kennedy's copy philosophy; His views of advertising were embodied in Scientific Advertising, a 1923 volume that supported its title. It is based on fixed principles and is reasonably exact. "Advertising is multiplied salesmanship. It may appeal to thousands while the salesman talks to one."Emphasized something unusual and memorable about the product. Ex: in one ad, before joining Lord & Thomas, he stressed the purity of Schlitz beer because the brewery steam-cleaned its bottles. All breweries did this, but Hopkins preempted the idea for Schlitz and offered it as an argument for drinking Schlitz; Popularized the use of coupons in advertisements that people could use to obtain a free sample of a product
Edward Bernays
"Greatest PR Guy"; Formed PRSA; Knew how to manipulate people; Applied psychology in public relations; Best known for Easter Parade for Tobacco companies promo of women smoking; Used angels that carefully calculated to appeal to the target audience; Made PR a profession rather than an art; Among the 1st to define his role specifically as "a special pleader b4 the court of public opinion"
Committee on public information (CPI)
coordinated the media and the war effort. It was to prepare propaganda for u se abroad and to help mobilize opinion at home. Official Bulletin, first government-produced newspaper.
Fireside Chats
Radio talk shows lead by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; Informal addresses to American public during the Great Depression.
DeWitt Wallace
A Minnesota-born college dropout who decided to put the best of the pamphlets of the Dept. of Agriculture into a single booklet, and such was published in 1916;"Getting the most out of farming." Believed the same could be done for magazine articles and created the Reader's Digest in 1922. It contained 31 articles of enduring value and interest, in condensed and compact form.
Albert Lasker (b. 1880 in Galveston, Texas)
During the first few years of the 20th century, he worked for Lord & Thomas, one of three major agencies in the nation (others were N.W. Ayer and J. Walter Thompson; In 1898, Albert made the 2-day train trip from Galveston to Chicago. He planned to be away for only a few months but stayed with Lord & Thomas until, as sole owner, he closed it on December 31, 1942; When he became partner, Lasker's salary rose to $52,000 a year. During his 44 years with Lord & Thomas, he earned about $45 million; He became increasingly troubled by the question, "What is advertising?" One day a copywriter from another city came to Lord & Thomas and offered to answer the question...
Franklin D. Roosevelt
even the considerable press opposition to him and his New Deal couldn't overcome his popularity. Even though he agreed to answer questions spontaneously at news conferences, the reporters became upset as he used his wit to evade questions or making too many remarks as "off the record." He has hostility for the press.
Samuel McClure
He was an important figure in muckraking journalism. He founded and ran the widely circulated McClure's Magazine, which was one of the most important sources of investigative journalism during the early 1900s. Financial problems caused the paper to shut down in 1911.
Ivy Lee
"Father of public relations"; originated modern PR in the early 1900s; Emphasized openness in dealing with the press; Objected to demands for "free advertising"; He & George Parker established the United States' 3rd public relations firm, Parker and Lee; People are influenced by a combination of fact & feeling.
Burma Shave
Samuel Hopkins
An American muckraking journalist who wrote "The Great American Fraud," the story criticized the then million dollar patent industry and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Fireside Chats
President F. Roosevelt's use of radio broadcasts to connect him and the people in an intimate way. Through these, he explained the nature of the bank moratorium, farm relief, and his New Deal's alphabet agencies to solve problems of the Depression.
Four-minute men
men who repeated lectures created by the CPI at movie theaters and other public gatherings.
Harold Ross
founder and editor of the New Yorker magazine. It reflected metropolitan life and kept up with affairs of the day in a gay and satirical vein. Once a year, the cover showed "Eustace Tilly," a fictitious character that seemed to symbolize the sophisticated, literal tone of the magazine.
Edward Bernays
public relations pioneer and nephew of Freud, approached PR from an intellectual viewpoint. He believed the public could be manipulated positively for its own good.
Louisa Knapp
Cyrus Curtis' wife who laughed at his efforts in covering women's news for publication called The Tribune and the Farmer. Knapp took over the job herself and the column grew to a page, then a supplement, and then a distinct magazine, Ladies' Home Journal. Knapp was founding editor. Her editorials increased circulation.
Ray Stannard Baker
He worked with Tarbell and Steffans at McClure's. Best known for his work "Railroads on Trial". He was the first prominent journalist to write on race relations in the South- "The Clashes of the Races in a Southern City." He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
(Sen.)Joseph McCarthy
Notoriety through televised hearings in the 1950s, he made unsubstantiated charges about Communist subversion in government, institutions, and media. "McCarthyism" Brought about a change in how journalists perceived themselves in society; Lost credibility after Army-Senate hearings.
Aunt Jemima
Introduced by R.T. Davis Mill and Manufacturing Company; A black maid to sell its pancake flour in the 1890s; Advertising Age recently rated this icorn as one of the 20th century's top-10 advertising icons
Rosser Reeves
Used technique of emphasizing something noteworthy about the product ; President and chairman at the Ted Bates agency, who developed it as a "unique selling proposition," or USP
W. T. Stead
An English journalist who crusaded against child prostitution. He cleverly titled his 1894 study of Chicago's seamy underbelly If Christ Came to Chicago.
H.L. Mencken
author who called the trial of Hauptmann "the greatest story since the Resurrection." Hauptmann was convicted for the kidnapping and murder of Charles A. Lindbergh's 19-month-old son.
Elmer Davis
veteran journalist who headed the Office of War Information (OWI), responsible for propaganda abroad and information distributed domestically. He favored openness and dissemination of information but military departments claimed control of info in their possession.
The magazine is known to most as a woman's magazine, but in the early 1900s it was a serious news magazine owned by William Randolph Hearst. Upton Sinclair, George Bernard Shaw, and David Graham Phillips contributed to the magazine.
Evening Mirror
Newspaper in Hillsboro, TX. Had a teletypewriter ; Opinions and such would appear as editorials, columns, or cartoons; Front page - news of major importance, something short and funny, and maybe a longer "human interest" piece. Society page - women's news. Sports page - aimed at men. Comics page - aimed at children.
Consumer Reports
Consumers Union ; Formed in 1936 as a non-profit organization. It sought to provide consumers information through this monthly publication, which carried no advertising. It quickly acquired 37,000 members and still exists today, testing and reporting on products and on questionable advertising and marketing practices
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair's greatest book that proved that muckraking was not just confined to journalism. A novel that tells the story of Lithuanian immigrants working in Chicago's Union Stock Yards. The book criticizes economic inequality, corruption, and the excesses of capitalism, and its lewd description of meat-packing practices led Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
David Olgilvy
Perhaps the most visible advertising person in the U.S. in recent years; A principal in the Olgilvy & Mather advertising agency and the author of the popular book titled Confessions of an Advertising Man; Obtained considerable attention as one of the more creative people in a business noted for its creativity; In 1951 he developed the idea for the man with the black eye patch wearing a Hathaway shirt in settings that identified him as a person of class
Norman Vincent Peale
Reverend and founder of the Guideposts (mag) that burnt down. He believed positive thoughts would overcome obstacles.Wrote the book, "The Power of Positive Thinking" in 1952. Guideposts had a formula for real-life stories about people who "walked up to adversity and kicked it."
Robert Abbott
Founder of the Chicago Defender in 1905, which emphasized sensational news geared to racism. It was a call to African Americans in the South to head North, and threatened the existing order in some areas.
Charles Saatchi
was the co-founder with his brother Maurice of the global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, which became the world's biggest before the brothers were forced out of their own company in 1995. In the same year the Saatchi brothers formed a new agency called M&C Saatchi. Many large clients followed, and their new agency quickly overtook their ex agency in Britain's top ten. Charles is also known worldwide as an art collector and owner of the Saatchi Gallery, and in particular for his sponsorship of the Young British Artists (YBAs), including Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin.
Disseminated propaganda through films, magazines & other entertainment media; Censored movie content; Encouraged publishers to include war messages in their periodicas; Famous for "Woman power project"
Frederick Palmer
correspondent for Collier's and veteran war reporter. He became an enthusiastic censor when hired as Chief Press Officer of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He distributed too little info and exercised too much censoring.
Ida Tarbell
One of the top muckraking (investigative) journalists of her time. She is widely known for her book, The History of the Standard Oil Company. Her work for McClure's magazine helped the magazine assume the leadership role in investigative journalism.
Edward R. Murrow
broadcasts from the British capitol while were bombing it. "This is London." He put together a team of correspondents for CBS who became "news stars" achieving the status of "on-the-air reporters." He was the most influential radio reporter to bring the realities of the war to Americans.
Ludlow Massacre
In response to low wages paid to minors, the mining fields were set on fire. First approach to Public Relations and crisis management
David Graham Phillip
A political journalist and novelist known for an article in Cosmopolitan criticicizing some Senators for voting on the behalf of certain interests. The article was called "The Treason of the Senate" and triggered a reaction from President Theodore Roosevelt who criticized the press in his famous "The Man with the Muckrake" speech. His journalism helped in leading to the 17th Amendment of the Constitution, which calls for the direct election of Senators by the people.
Abraham Cahan
He was a Russian-American novelist that wrote of his Jewish and immigrant experience. A Tale of the New York Ghetto, The Imported Bridegroom, and a piece he did for the Atlantic Monthly on Russian Jewish immigrants are his most popular works.
reason why approach
Was hard-sell advertising; Readers of ads must be given reasons why they should purchase the product; The advertisement must sound much like the presentation a salesman makes to a prospect; It must answer questions a customer may have; It must contain long copy that is positive and persuasive
Vladimir Zworykin
Russian immigrant to the US who worked for the Westinghouse's research staff. His television experiments on the side attracted Sarnoff, who hired him to pioneer television for RCA.
Rosie the Riveter
A woman who entered the labor force to take the places of men who had gone to war. She suggested plots for fictional stories about such women.
"Il Duce," got a lot of attention from American Press, he created a positive image for himself and welcomed interviews. He believed to have saved Italy and answered the Communist challenge. Described as a "despot with a dimple," by Tarbell.
Curtis MacDougall
professor at Northwestern Univ.; Interpretive Reporting
Mary Wells Lawrence
The first woman to rise to the status of principal at a major agency; copywriter for McCann-Erickson and Doyle Dane Bernbach; she created the "I Love New York" campaign; came up with the concept of painting Braniff jets outlandish colors in the late 1970s; opened her own agency, Well Rich Greene, in 1966 with Stew Greene and Dick Rich
Easier and less expensive to print a wire service story by good reporter as opposed to assigning a local story to a reporter; Its technology locked up punctuation, capitalization, abbreviation, and usage style; Locked newspapers into narrow range of column widths. All looked and read alike.
Edward R. Murrow
Pointed out weaknesses of McCarthy's allegations; Demonstrated contradictions through film of speeches and interviews.
Ernie Pyle
very popular WWII civilian combat reporter. Through his syndicated column he covered the war with the viewpoints of life in the military in a detailed manner and wrote about the common solider and the truths of the horrors of war. Books: "Here is your War" and "Brave Men."
Lee De Forrest
"father of radio." He developed the Audition tube in 1906. Transmitted speech via radio in lab tests conducted in NY and Europe. Most publicized one was from Eiffel Tower with a reception of over 500 miles away. Sold his original ownership of technology to the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
Bernays four steps
"molding public opinion"; Formulate objectives in the "public interest"; Analyze Public attitudes; Study that analysis and make the program or policy "part and parcel of the thinking and action of the leaders in the industry."; Use the media to carry the policy.
George Creel
A muckraking journalist; Chair of Committee of Public Information (CPI); Concluded that the public could be influenced by media messages; Utilized the "four minute men" to spread the war message; Raised more than $13 billion to finance the war (WWI); Presented "Facts w/o the slightest trace of color or bias"; Used propaganda to 'win the war'; Flooded market with press releases about the war.
American Magazine.
Baker, Steffans, and Tarbell left McClure's in 1906 to create their own magazine
Lila Wallace
wife of the founder of Reader's Digest and partner in his venture.
John Cameron Swayze
Radio journalist who became the pitch man on Timex watch commercials (live); A Timex was lashed to an outboard motor propeller and thrashed into a barrel of water but disappeared, Swayze was speechless.
Four Freedoms
Declared by President FDR; 1. Freedom of speech and expression; 2. Freedom of every person to worship in his own way; 3. Freedom from want; 4. Freedom from fear
Theodore Roosevelt
A progressive Republican, who was the twenty-sixth president of the United States. He crusaded against "machine politics" as the governor of New York. He criticized journalists after reading "The Treason of the Senate" by Philips of Cosmopolitan. His famous speech criticizing journalists was called "The Man with the Muckrake" speech, an allusion to John Bunyan's Pilgrim Progress.
Leone Baxter
Married to Whitaker
Elmer Davis
Considered being one of the greatest news reporters of the mid-20th century.
Martin Block
a young announcer who copied the idea for an independent station of WNTW in NYC. HE became the highest paid disc jockey in the country.
Carol Byoir
Served as assoc. chair for CPI; Advertising & Sales; Helped establish "March of Dimes"; Organized several "birthday balls" for FDR, raising $ for polio research.
What is modern advertising?
It is a process of producing persuasive messages that sponsors pay media to carry
Philo Farnsworth
"father of television"; Had the first public demonstration of television by the transmission of a photograph.
Hans Von Kaltenborn
populat radio commentator at NBC. Began broadcasting in 1922 after being editor of Brooklyn Eagle and joined NBC in 1930.
John Reed
wrote book, "10 Days that Shook the World." Leftist American journalist who became a trusted observer of the Bolsheviks.
Mann Act
A piece of legislation that was passed in 1909. It prohibited the transportation of females across state lines for immoral purposes, enacted after Burton J. Hendricks's article "Daughters of the Poor" appeared in McClure's.
Charles Van Doren
Became a celebrity in 1956 "because of his mind"; was the living symbol of shame in the so-called "quiz show scandals" where producers manipulated contestants and gave them the answers in advanced; Was convicted of lying to the grand jury but spent no time in jail. "Trust no one."
Doris Fleischman
The wife of Edward Bernays; Woman who knew how to appeal to consumers
Dr. Frank Conrad
Began to play phonograph records over the airways of his 8XK (later KDKA) for the entertainment of his fellow amateurs.
David Sarnoff
pioneer who developed NBC. Had a vision of a "radio music box" for home use that might also pick up the news. Head of RCA.
Food and Drug Act
Passed in 1907, after Samuel Hopkins Adams' expose of the patent medicine industry, "The Great American Fraud," appeared in Colliers.
Woodrow Wilson
This president and his advisors risked serious encounter with Germany in order to defend law, morality, national prestige, and bliefs in neutral rights. After German subs sank 3 American merchant ships in March, he asked Congress to recognize a state of war and it was declared on April 6, 1917.
Harry Marsh
Baylor graduate; Reporter for The Delta-Democratic Times; Used the United Press wire service coverage of the Till trial; Photographed and wrote features of the trial.
Arthur Page
Realized PR had been a 1 way street; Developed a 2 way street approach to PR, allowing for feedback; Internal & External communication; Internal - newsletters/positive type of stuff; External - Confronting the public.
Clem Whitaker
A newspaper reporter & lobbyist; created political PR; began negative PR campaigning.
The Crisis
a monthly journal of the NAACP, founded by W.E.B. DuBois. It was concerned that Pres. Wilson was more concerned with the conditions in Europe as opposed to plight of black Americans.
Lincoln Steffans
He was another muckraking journalist that worked for McClure's. He is known for exposing corruption in major American cities. His first installment- "Tweed Days in St. Louis" may have been the "first muckraking article". He also wrote an autobiography that Dr. Ferdon liked called the Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. He said after returning from Communist Russia, "I've seen the future and it works."
Three Mile Island
"Crisis Management" to PR; Right to know legislation; Quick on-site response; Rigorous fact-finding; Controlled lines of communication.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
This act allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the U.S. Government. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures and grants nine exemptions to the statute.
William Simmons
Founder of the 2nd Ku Klux Klan
Pure Edward Markham
He wrote articles on child labor exploitation for Cosmopolitan in 1906. His articles helped change the public's mind on child labor and supported activists who worked for child labor laws.
Edward Bok
took over editorship from Louisa Knapp in 1890, and magazine was first in history to reach 1 million readers. Bok carried readers to new areas of interest, including crusades for sex education, which included the word "syphilis" for the first time in any American popular magazine. He boasted that his was first magazine of large circulation to sell at 10 cents an issue, first with montly cover changes, first to refuse questionable advertising, and first to create to create personal columns between editor and reader.
John E. Kennedy
Advertising is "salesmanship in print"; Gave Lasker lessons about making this definition work; This concept, sometimes called the "reason why" approach, would guide Lasker throughout his professional career; Joined Lord & Thomas as a copywriter; Remained with the agency for only about 2 years
Ray Stannard Baker
Pointed out a major flaw in the "bar of public opinion" explanation of the role of PR; Not all people could benefit from PR & those who could pay, had an advantage over others; New Development in PR: Promoting public interest as well as client interest (new era in opinion management)
Leo Burnett
Created Jolly Green Giant, Pillsbury Dough Boy, Tony the Tiger, and Marlboro Man
Ralph Nader
In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
Walter Lippman
an intellectual who became the last editor of New York World; called for the professionalization of journalism and urged that reporters be trained to be as objective as possible. He wrote book "Public Opinion," which outlined the concept of the "public" as an emotional, rather than logical, entity. He was opposed to New Deal and Franklin Roosevelt.

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