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Global Ch 39: The Changing Americas


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Failure to pay debt (to a foriegn country)
Organization of American States. A group of nations in the Americas that worked together on common issues
Porfirio Diaz
(1830-1915) Ruled harshly, but brought ORDER and STABILITY to Mexico.
What was Diaz's rule called
La Porfiriato
Economic part of Diaz's rule
Foreign investment was encouraged and capital flowed to the nation's mines, plantations, and railroads
Why was Diaz resented?
He allowed his supporters and foreign investors to take over peasant lands
How much of the population held how much of the land in Mexico in 1910?
85% of land held by 1% of population
How was Mexico's agriculture?
Cotton was grown instead of food, so there was a decrease in the food supply
Who challenged Diaz in the free election in 1910 and what happened to him?
Francisco Madero, but he was jailed by Diaz.
What happened after Madero escaped jail?
He became the president of Mexico, but he could not keep the support of the peasants or landowners and civil war swept Mexico
Who assassinated Madero?
General Huerta
Who led the peasants (peones) in the guerilla war against the gov't troops?
Emiliano Zapata and Francisco "Poncho" Villa
Where were Emiliano Zapata and "Poncho" Villa from?
Zapata was from Morelos, and Villa was from Chihuahua
Who led the gov't troops against Zapata and Villa?
General Huerta
What were the reforms of the Mexican Constitution of 1917?
1) combined nationalism and social reform 2) gave Mexican gov't power to distribute land to peasants and regulate oil exportation 3) workers could join unions 4) 8 hr workday 5) free education 6) limits on political power 7) limited wealth of catholic church
Lazaro Cardenas
encouraged Mexicans to start their own businesses, gave land to peones, NATIONALIZED oil companies, built schools, factories, highways & railroads
"Social realism"
Artists painted murals of MEXICAN INDIAN heritage, dramatic events in Mexican history, and peasant life
Diego Rivera
one of the three foremost pioneers in social realism. Wanted revolutionary change. Worked with murals.
Jose Lopez Portillo
president in 70's. The nation faced inflation, unemployment, food shortages, and unfavorable balance of trade
(Institutional Revolutionary Party) Mexico's major party
Mexican Oil Boom
(1970's) Mexico exported lots of oil, brought in money. Corruption in gov't cost the gov't millions. Agriculture was neglected
Brazil's chief export
Getulio Vargas
"father of the Poor" During the 1930's GLOBAL DEPRESSION, prices dropped and unemployment rose (EL CAUDILLO)
How was Brazil ruled from 1945 to 1985?
Brazil was ruled by the army and military leaders until they gave up their power and an election took place
Juan Domingo Peron (year he became president)
(1946) Set up an authoritarian gov't and worked to make Argentina's economy more self sufficient
When and why was Peron ousted from his gov't?
In 1955 he was ousted because the economy was weak and he couldn't gain support and Evita died
When and why was Peron reelected?
In 1973 he was reelected because the gov't was corrupt and the Argentinian people were nostalgic
Evita Duarte Peron
Was a radio & movie star who gained voting rights for women and was popular among the workers & poor (d. 1952)
Isabel Peron
Juan Peron's 3rd wife.
What is it called when there is both unemployment and inflation?
"Los Desaparecidos"
"the Disappeared Ones". Tens of thousands of students killed by gov't sponsored death squads
Who ruled Argentina in the late 70s and early 80s?
A junta
Falkland Islands War (date)
(April 2 1982) the Argentinian gov't invaded the Falklands, but British PM Margaret Thatcher sent troops to take over the island and Argentina surrendered
Why did Argentina participate in the Falkland Islands War?
They wanted to "distract the public and unite the country"
Carlos Menem
Took office in 1989. Faced inflation, but increased confidence in civilian gov't. "truth and reconciliation" hearings were bad because the juntas were not punished.
What did the Argentinians call the Falklands?
los Malvinas
What were the Falklands famous for?
Their whaling
General Augusto Pinochet
Pledged to wipe out Communism in Chile. (Facist) 1) suspended legislature 2) ordered severe censorship 3) violence against opponents 4) agreed to step down after a vote
Salvador Allende
Marxist. Inflation, nationalized businesses, land reform, higher wages in Chile.
How was Cuba ruled after the Spanish-American war?
Cuba was formally independent, but the US kept naval bases there and maintained peace. (colony)
What was produced in Cuba?
Fulgencio Batista
Former army sergeant who took control of Cuba and ran a harsh dictatorship
Fidel Castro (nickname)
"maximum leader" led rebel forced against Batista. Nationalized foreign holdings, campaign against illiteracy, rooted out racial discrimination. Allied with Soviets and set up one-party Marxist state. Executed and imprisoned his opponents.
Two major events between US and Cuba(dates)
Bay of Pigs (1961) and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Economic nationalism
Effort to bring about economic independece through local control and industrialization (opposite of neocolonialism)

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