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Poli86 authors


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the nationstate is the authority
war is always a possibility
everyone should have nuclear weapons
human nature is flawed
national states are unitary actors, black box
social construct of IR Is a self-fulfilling prophecy
security dilemma
Keohane & Nye
neoliberal institutionalist
complex, liberal, interdependence
1. rational policy model
2. organizational process model
3. bureaucratic politics model
governance won't be by nation states in 50 years
a rgime that relies on collective action is useful
it isn't harmony, rather, a mixture of conflict and common interests
conscious policy coordination
liberal states avoid war because they feel the ramifications and the constant power shifts
ideological conflict is the reasons for conflict will change
Cause of civil war is economic
-Cause of civil war is cultural/historical
-Tensions are the result of the region’s absorption into the Ottoman Empire
-Religion fostered national cultural identity while fracturing the groups speaking the same language (ie-Albanians)
-“imagined community”
-Tito managed to ensure that no one national group overwhelmed the others
-Prevented the emergence of a dissident movement striving to create a liberal, individualistic civil society
-Forcibly a country can repel and expel. it can do anything if it has enough strength
-Two sides cant both overcome each other with superior strength
-the greatest military power is the THREAT of the use of force
-Self determination reinforces and exaggerates divisions
-We should go into failing states not failed states
-Self determination limits democracy and makes minorities smaller
-Good self determination—when empires break up
-When a country is failing, the international community should step in
-Problems with international intervention in a failed state—who do you send the aid to if there is nobody in charge?
Krasner and Pascual
Failed states:
-Cause instability
-Breeding grounds for terrorism
-Foster extremists/fundamentalists, drugs, sex-trafficking
-suicide terrorist attacks tend to be aimed at democracies, as these are more amenable targets
-about half the time suicide terrorism is an effective means of convincing target states to make modest policy changes
-rising rates of suicide terrorism globally
terrorism raises morale
Al Qaeda adapts
extremist groups are appealing because people feel socially alienated
gains are relative
distribution of power affects economic relationships
pursuit of power and pursuit of wealth go together
loves the IMF
-globalization sucks
-neoliberal policy has failed
-markets have been opened because of US and IMF pressuresSachs
US foreign aid is pathetic; it's less than .2% of our GDP
rich countries don't let enough immigrants in
poor nations haven't attracted capital
trade can work as a subsitute for aid but there has to be a lot of trade.
development is possible and if all countries take advantage of this opportunity, the 3rd world will develop
IBRD can't do much about today's proverty.
-we need a reform in politics
-middle income won't go to the world bank
-but it's helping enough
-we have to lay groundwork for change now
law can be an alternative to force but they don't automatically contribute to world order
-can be detrimental to world order and counterproductive for the the case of escalation of claims and counterclaims
parallel unilaterialsm-US says it wants to work together, but it really wants to be the boss of everyone else working together
there's been more UN action recently
it's overloaded and not designed to tackle interstate conflict
major powers only agree on a few things
security council structure needs to change procedure and practice (Germany, Japan)
enforcement should be by states and not by the UN
there are higher expectations
it's hard to share power with regional bodies/states
civil war is deadlier than interstate war and now there's more of it
De Mesquita
talks about how theories are constructed and how they are evaluated
nuclear weapons kept the cold war cold
thinks globalization is great; there is a distinction between trade in goods and trade in financial assets. The cost associated with banking crises is very great
globalization isolates the middle class. the middle class needs to "tech up"
the original purpose of the EUropean constitution was a refrm of the EU's institutions and decision making processes.
the EU constitution was rejected because of the poor economic performance and uncertain long-term prospects
the US will ignore its EU partners unless they agree with us
the expanded EU is not effective
in order to get out of crisis: 1) boost economic performance, improve employment, 2) realign Germany and France to more liberal econ tracks 3) renew commitment to US
**strengthen EU unity
why the security co failed...(?)
Keck and Sikkink
4 mechanisms by which networks pressure governments
1. shaming
2. consumer pressures

-Information politics: provide info that wouldn’t otherwise be available from sources that might not otherwise be heard. Gain by wording things to get attention; no “neutral” terms
-Symbolic politics: framing issues
-Leverage politics: link the issue to something like money or goods
-Accountability politics: keep politicians and governments accountabile for the statements they make
Howard and Donnelly
Basic rights: almost universally accepted
Oversight and information: UN Commission on Human Rights. There’s monitoring, but no formal enforcement mechanism
writes about genocide,is basically the bomb.
darfur and the genocide debate
⬢Growth in extent and specificity, and expansion of geographic range
⬢There is a spotty dispute resolution, there was no permanent ICC until quite recently
1. noncompliance
2. individual v. group rights, developed v. developing nations
group rights should never trump individual rights. But some developing countries say that some individual rights should sometimes be subsumed beneath group rights
Kant’s belief of “democratic peace”
-democratic countries do not engage in violent conflicts with one another
-they possess mutual respect for each other
-realists offer little input on this idea
-realists conclude that the effects of differing domestic regimes are overridden by the international anarchy under which states live
-some think that relations among any group of states with similar social structures or with compatible values would be peaceful
-thirdly at the level of interstate relations neither specific regional attributes nor historic alliances or friendships can account for the wide reach of the liberal peace
-finally, wars occur outside the liberal zone because conflicts of interest are deeper there
-some say it is because citizens of democratic states bear the costs of war
the loss of one resource isn't a very big deal because human ingenuity will always find another option (opposite of Malthus)
Determinants of alliance formation
-balancing (ally against threat)
-bandwagon (ally with threat)
nothing is as big of a deal as it seems
-sovereignty isn't dead, it was just never as big of a deal as it seeemed
-eventually, all states will recognize human rights
-globalization isn't a threat
every country must be allowed to follow its own path to globalization
Kyoto protocol lay the groundwork for change but now it's time to move on. we have a big task ahead (reduce greenhouse gas emissions) and it will be expensive, but we should start now
is a neoliberal institutionalist
institutions will Encourage longer-term gains from cooperation, facilitate repeated interaction
constructivist; state behavior is shaped by belief
⬢Collective beliefs constitute the structures, which organize our actions
⬢Ideas are important because the same structure of international politics has different meanings to different countries/at different times
Feinstein and Slaughter
duty to prevent should soemtimes trump state sovereignty
enforcement should remain multilateral
Mickelthwait & Wooldridge
globalization doesnt mean that companies will rule the world
-countries and gvnt is bigger than companies
-globalization calls for a specialization
-doesn't mean a race to the bottom (quality is important, too)

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