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SS Final Exam

Terms

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Abraham Lincoln
President during the Civil War, when the war was over he wanted the Southern states to return willingly to the Union; had a plan for Reconstruction
The Treaty of Paris
signed in 1783, made American independence official after the Revolutionary War; it set the western border of the US at the Mississippi River
World War II
broke out in 1939 when Germany invaded Poland; the dictator Hitler committed mass murder of Jews called the Holocaust; America joined the war with Japan invaded the US at Pearl Harbor in 1941
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of ground below the top layer of soil
Winnipeg
the capital city of Manitoba, Canada; in Canada's Interior Plains
Death Valley
the hottest, driest region of North America, located in southeastern California;
Jamestown
the first permanent British settlement in North America, located in present-day Virginia; now a site of historic preservation
Andrew Johnson
became President after Abraham Lincoln's assassination; tried to carry out plans for Reconstruction
indigenous
belonging to a certain place
Harry S. Truman
became President after Franklin Roosevelt died in office; decide to drop two atomic bombs on Japan to end WW II
George Washington
led the American forces to victory in the Revolutionary War; became the first president of the US
abolitionist
a person who believed that enslaving people was wrong and who wanted to end the practice
Great Plains
a huge area of lowlands in the United States between the Rockie Mountains and the Appalachains
Andrew Jackson
elected president in 1828, looked after interests of poor farmers, laborers and settlers who wanted Native American lands in the Southeast. persueded Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act which made Indians leave their homelands
glacier
a huge, slow-moving mass of snow and ice
Appalachain Mountains
a mountain system in eastern North America
labor force
the supply of workers
Louisiana Purchase
the sale of land in 1803 by France to the US; all the land between the Mississippi River and the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains
Homestead Act
a law passed in 1862 giving 160 acres of land on the Midwestern plains to any adult willing to live on and farm it for five years
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote a novel called Uncle Tom's Cabin about the evils of slavery - an abolitionist
Cold War
a period of great tension between the United States and the former Soviet Union, which lasted for more than 40 years after World War II
St. Lawrence River
a river in eastern North America; the third-longest river in Canada; connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean; one of North America's most important transportation routes; also called the "Mothe of Canada"
Grand Coulee Dam
a dam on the Columbia River in the state of Washington; produces more hydroelectricity than any other dam in the US
civil rights movement
a large group of people who worked together in the US beginning in the 1960s to end the segregation of African Americans and support equal rights for all minorities
Fugitive Slave Act
passed by Congress it said people anywhere in the country must return runaway slaves to their owners
St. Lawrence Lowlands
a major agricultural and manufacturing region in the Prairie Provinces of Canada; Canada's smallest land region, but home to more than half of the population
plantation
a large, one-crop farm with many workers, common in the Southern United States before the Civil War
prairie
a region of flat or rolling land covered with tall grasses
Thomas Jefferson
wrote the Declaration of Independance; hispowerful words liberty, equality and justice inspired many colonists to fight
Pennsylvania Colony
a place where all people, regardless of race or religion, were treated fairly
Rocky Mountains
the largest mountain range in western North America, extending 3,000 miles south from Alberta, Canada, through the western United States to Mexico;
climate zones
areas or regions where the climate is similar; factors such as latitude, mountains, and oceans affect what is found in the region;
forests
cover nearly one third of the US and almost on half of Canada
Mississippi River
a large river in the central US flowing south from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico; America's largest river; also called the "Father of Waters"
The American Constitution
the highest law of the United States written by leaders in Philadelphia and approved in 1788
province
a political division of land in Canada, similar to a state in the United States
Imperial Valley
a valley in the Colorado Desert, extending from southeastern California to Mexico; a region that has vast vegetable fields operated by agribusinesses
Jacob Riis
an angry man who wrote a book called How the Other Half Lives; told people about crowded conditions in the slums during the late 1800s
alluvial
deposited by water; relating to the fertile topsoil left by rivers after a flood
settlement house
a community center for poor immigrants to the United States
Great Depression
began in 1929 when factories all across America closed, people lost their jobs and farmers lost their farms, many banks closed
Jane Addams
set up a settlement house or community center in Chicago for poor immigrants
tropics
the area on the Earth between 23 and a half degrees North and 23 and a half degrees South lines of latitude, where the climate is almost always hot
tributary
a river or stream that flows into a larger river
indentured servant
a person who, in exchange for benefits received, must work for a period of years to gain freedom
Reconstruction
United States plan for rebuilding the nation after the Civil War, included a period when the South was governed by the United States Army
rain shadow
an area on the side of a mountain away from the wind that receives little rainfall
Williams Penn
founded the Pennsylvania Colony 60 years after the piligrims arrived in Massachusetts from England in 1620
Industrial Revolution
the change from making goods by hand to making them by machine
Articles of Confederation
a plan of government that was formed by the 13 new states after the Revolutionary War; it did not provide for a strong central government and Congress ws not given the power to tax.
Great Lakes
a group of five large lakes in central North America: Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario; formed by glaciers long ago; shipping on the lakes helped industry to grow in Canada and the US
desert scrub
with little rainfall, desert and semiarid regions have few plants; the land cannot support large numbers of people, but many sheep graze on the area's short grasses and shrubs
William Clark
partner with Meriwether Lewis to explore the landes west of the Mississippi River
World War I
broke out in 1914 when war broke out in Europe; America fought with the Allied Powers of Great Britain and France who fought against the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
Franklin Roosevelt
President after the Great Depression; he created a plan called the New Deal to help people get jobs and to restore the economy; also President during WW II
tundra
a cold, dry region covered with snow for more than half the year; a vast, treeless plain where the subsoil is always frozen
Woodrow Wilson
did not want Americans to take part in World War I but when Germany began sinking US ships he had no choice
agribusiness
a large company that runs huge farms to produce, process and distribute agricultural products
segregate
to set apart and force to use separate schools, housing, parks, and so on because of race or religion
immigrant
a person who moves to a new country in order to settle there
Mount St. Helens
Volcano in Washington state that erupted in 1980; helped to form the Cascades mountain range
Revolutionary War
the war in which the American colonies won their independence from Britain, fought from 1775 to 1781
Civil War
the war between the northern and southern states in the United States, which began in 1861 and ended in 1865
communism
a theory of government in which property such as farms and factories is owned by the government for the benefit of all citizens; a political system in which the central government controls all aspects of citizens' lives
Interior Plains
a huge area of lowlands in Canada between the Rockie Mountains and the Appalachains
missionary
a person who tries to convert others to his or her religion
Martin Luther King, Jr.
great leader of the civil rights movement to end segregation and win rights for African Americans
Meriwether Lewis
partner with William Clark to explore the lands west of the Mississippi River
Christopher Columbus
a sea captain who sailed from Spain in 1492 to explore islands in the Caribbean Sea
hydroelectricity
electric power produced by moving water, usually generated by releasing water from a dam across a river
Manifest Destiny
a belief that the United States had a right to own all the land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Continental Divide
the boundary that separates rivers flowing toward opposite sides of a continent; in North America, in the Rocky Mountains;
Vancouver
a city in southwestern British Columbia, Canada; it rains there year round

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