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gentics test 01

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
Traits
characteristics of an individual
genotype
genetic constitution of an organism
_ set the range for _, while _ determines where in what range the phenotype ends up
genotypes, phenotypes, environment
Work of gregor johann mendel is considered...
foundation of modern genetics
organisms suitable for genetic experiment (5)
1-easy to grow
2-bears lowers and fruit in same year
3-produces large number of seeds
4-self fertilize
5-have a number of categorical traits



what organism did mendel use?

pea plants
mendel allowed 34 strains of pea plants to self fertilize for many generations to make strains that are...
true-breeding
true breeding is
all dominant
true breeding is

all dominant or all recessive strands
Mendel's principle?

principle of segregation
example of a monohybrid cross
BBxbb
dihybrid cross
AaxAa
principle of uniformity is
the F1 offspring of a monohybrid cross will exactly resemble only one parent
reciprocal crosses
matings that are done both ways if the results are the same this means the trait doesnt depend on the sex
Mendel made three conclusions from his experiment
1-reciprocal crosses were always the same
2- all f1 progeny resembled parental strains, indicating dominance of one allel over another
3-in f2 generation, the parental trait that had disappeared in f1 reappeared. Trait seen in f1 (dominant) was found in the f2 by 3:1

Mendel's first law
principle of segregation
principle of segregation
recessive traits, which are masked in the f1 from a cross between 2 true-breeding strains, reappear in a specific proportion in the f2
2 alleles make
make a gamete
where are genes located on the chromosome
locus
diploid
eukaryotic cell, organism w/ 2 homologouss sets of chromosomes XX in a cell
product rule

the probability of two independent events ocurring simultaneously is the product of each of their individuatl properties
sum rule
the probablitlyt of occurence of any of several mutually exclusive events is the sume of the probablilities in each event (prob of getting this or that)
how many genes are you looking at in the principle of segregation
1
how many genes are you looking at in indep assort
2
null mutation
protein w/ no funciton or missing
mendel's second law
principle of independent assortment
independent assortment is
pairs of alleles for genes on different chromosomes segregate independently in the formation of gametes
ex of independent assortment
Pp and Ss have nothing to do with each other during segregation
dyhibrid ration
9:3:3:1
null hypothesis is
states that there is no real difference between the observed data and the predicted data
chi square test test cross between a dihybrid cross is what ratio
1:1:1:1
formula for the chai square test
(o-e)^2 /e
how do you find the degrees of freedom
n-1
what is the saying for the null hypothesis
"if the P value is low, the null hypothesis must go"
homologous chromosomes is
2 diff copies of chromosomes you get one from each parent
sister chromatids
2 identical copies of chromatids connected by centromere
diplois is having
2 copies of each type of chromosomes in the nuclei
gametes
mature reproductive cells made by 2 haploids
homologous chromosomes
pair of chromosomes that contain the same genes
sex chromosomes
chormosomes that are represented differently in the 2 sexes
male XY
autosomes
chromosomes other than sex chromosomes

location of centromeres (4) start from top to middle
telocentric, acrocentric, submetacentric, metacentric
mitosis is to
completely repiclicate
2 pahses of the cell cycle
mitosis and interphase
mitotic phase of cell cycle is for
cell division
interphase phase in cell cyle is for
replication of dna and chormosome
interphase has 3 parts.. describe
G1- cell prepares for DNA nad Chromosome replication
S- dna and chromosome replication
missing part of interphase...
G2: cell prepares for cell division
during interphase
DNA of each chromosomes is replicated giving 2 exact copies
daughter chromosomes
when centromeres sepreate, the sister chromatids become daughter chromosomes
5 stages of mitosis
prophase,prometaphase,metaphase,
5stages of mitosis*
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Prophase
each duplicated chromosomes bcomes visible as two sister chromatids.
prometaphase
kinetachores attach to sister chromatids
metaphase
microtubules tug sister chromatids in opposite directions, lining them up
anaphase
sister chromatids seperate and resulting daughter chromosomes begin migration to opposite poles
telophase
nuclear envelopes begin forming
cytokineses
completes mitosis cell division
explain gene segregation in mitosis
one copy of each duplicated chromosomes segregates into both daughter cells
mitosis is the process of
nuclear division in eukaryotes
mitosis results in
daughter nuclei that contain identical chromosomes numbers and are genetically identical to one another and to the partent nucleus from which they arose
meiosis
2 successive divisions of a diploid nucleus after only one DNA replication cycle
the resluts from meiosis in animals
gametes
the results on meiosis in plants
meiospores
chromosomes undergoes two divisions
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
describe...


mI: REDUCTION in number of chromosomes in each cell from diploid to haploid
Meiosis II:
seperation of sister chromatids
Meiosis of a diploid cell makes
four diploid cells
stages of meiosis I
prophaseI-crossing over occurs
prometaphase-kinetachores attach
metaphaseI-chromosomes pair on metaphase plate
anaphaseI-chromosome begin to seperate
telophase



crossing over is what and occurs when
occurs in meiosis,prophase
produces new gene combinations
compare metaphaseI and metaphase of mitosis
mitosis, homologous chromosomes align independently of one another
meiosis II is
similar to mitotic division
what is the results of mitosis and meiosis
mitosis: a clone diploid cell
meiosis: 4 haploid cells
spored germinate through _ to form _
mitosis, gametophyte
2 haploid gametes=
a diploid zygote
chromosome theory of inheritence
genes are located on the chromosome
heterogametic
produces 2kinds of gametes (x,y)
homogametic
produces 1 type of gamete,x
thomas hunt morgan's experiment proved
a gene for eye color is located on the x chromosome
hemizygous
gene is present only once in an organism (male x linked gene)
anueploidy
abnormal condition where one ore more whole chromosomes of a normal set of chromosomes are missing or are present in more than the usual number
in drosophila how is sex determined
by the ration of the numbner of x chromosomes: the number of sets of autosomes
intersex
not everyone fits into 2 discreet categories
the affect an xlinked recessive trait has on males and females
males-affected transmit to daughters not sons
females-usually must be homozygous recessive allel in order to express allele
incomplete dominance
when one allele is not completely dominant to the other allel might not be in the middle of phenotype of two homozygous
brownxwhite
tan

codominance
heterozygote exhibits both phenotypes of homozygotes
epistasis
interaction b/w alleles of tow or more genes control a single phenotype. interaction involved one gene MASKING or modifying the phenotypic expression of the other gene
epistasis dominand and recessive ractios
dominant- 12:3:1
recessive-9:3:4
pleiotropy
single gene that affects multiple phenotypic traits
compare penetranc and expressivity
p-freq in which a genotype is manifested in the phenotype of a population.
e-degree to which a penetrant gene is phenotypically expressed
a little gray in hair
p-penetrant
e-low expressivity(quantitative)



griffiths transformation experiment used.. and found..
lethal bacteria... found DNA to be the transforming principle

Deck Info

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