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Terms

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Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
Reichstag
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
Pogroms
Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia.
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Volksgeist
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.
Zollverein
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1834 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Ems Dispatch
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.
Zemstvos
Local assemblies in Russia.
Nationalism
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence.
Realpolitik
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
Leopold II
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa.
Carbonari
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
Grossdeutsch
Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans".
Panslavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
Kleindeutsch
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans".
Constitutional monarchy
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.
Carlsbad Decrees
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.
Ausgleich, 1867
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
Giuseppe Mazzini
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people.
Magyars
In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry & the minority population.
Liberalism
The base ideas of liberty & equality.
Napoleon III
Original Napoleon's nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.
Bundesrat
The federal council of Austrian government.
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Alexander II
(r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Risorgimento
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".

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