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History Exam Terms, People and Moments


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point of view
how a person sees an event based on who that person is
frame of reference
how a person sees an event based on where that person is
the ability to get what one wants and to protect what one has (legitamate sources: wealth and the vote; illegitamate sources: force)
man's insights into morality and imortality
natural resources; water
things that motivate specific people to do specific actions throughout history
rule by a king or queen
rule by one absolute leader
representative government
a form of government where people elect one person to represent many; that representative meets with other representatives to run the government
rule by a titled privelaged class of people
class system
system where a person's place in society is determined by birth; it is dificult or immposible to change classes
a boy who works for a craftsman; he gives his labor in exchange for training, room, board and clothing
people owned by others; they have no rights; they recieve no pay for their work; treated like animals
people who work for others for pay; they have the ability to quit at any time
indentured servants
a worker who comes to America to work without pay for a certain number of years in exchange for the cost of the voyage over
religious toleration
allowing people to practice their religion freely and openly
one who believes Jesus was God
a Christian who follows the Church of Rome and the Pope
a Christian who doesnt belong to the Church of Rome or the Pope (-protest-ant... a person who protests against some Catholic beliefs)
a loosely formed alliance (ie. CSA, Articles of Confederation, King Phillip, Pontiac)
a document giving official permission to do something (Colonies, Andrew Jackson vs. Bank)
Primary Source
a person or item actually at the historical event
secondary source
a person or item analyzing an event, but was not actually there
Social Compact/ Social Contract
an agreement on how people will live with one another (Mayflower Compact)
Musket vs. Rifle
Musket- a weapon that simply throws a musket ball without much accuracy; Rifle- a weapon that uses a groove in the barrel to spin the bullet so that it flies very accurately
period of history when Europeans used new sailing technology; changed oceans from barriers to carriers and went out to discover the unknown world "Age of Exploration"
period of history when europeans expanded the reach of their countries into empires by planting settlements elsewhere
England vs. France
the battle of the two superpowers of their time for control of the New World, possessions of their empires and at times, all of Europe (approx. 1650-1850)
Independence/Revolution/Declaration of Independence
the point at which the English colonies in North America threw off their Englsih mother-country and become a separate nation (1776-83)
Constitution/Formation of Government
a written outline of government; defining the 3 branches of government (legislative, executive, judicial) written at the Philedelphia convention; replaced articles of confederation; still in use today
Louisiana Purchase
Pres. T. Jefferson bought the LA Territory from France for 15 million dollars; it doubled the size of the US and showed America that our future was in the west, and not tied to Europe
Manifest Destiny
The idea that the US was preordained to grow from "sea to shining sea"; it was a major factor in the annexation of texas and oregon, war with mexico, the Gadsen purchase, and the purchase of alaska
Industrialization/Yankee Ingenuity/Modern Transportation
Centralized production which took off more in the North than in the South and determined the outcome of the Civil War (the steam engine, cotton gin, railroads, canals, McAdams road, mills)
Indian Removal
Under president A. Jackson, lawas were passed ordering the placement of all indians east of the MS River to the west of the MS River; some removal was illegal, like the Trail of Tears
permanent possesion of one human being by another
the movement to end slavery
attempt to keep the country together by negotiation (Compromise of 1850, 1820)
Texas War for Independence
United States had nothing to do with this***
The war between Mexico and the Mexican state of Texas in which Texas declared and won its independence (Alamo, Goliad, San Jacinto)
Mexican-American War
Started by bad feelings between the countries and a boundary dispute, the US invades Mexico and captures Mexico City (US wins the Southwest including CA)(Winfield Scott, Gen Santa Anna, Zachary Taylor)
Gold Rush
Sutters Mill (CA) and Miner 49ers
broader education
woman sarah pierce and mary lyon; democratic contests- spelling bees (noah webster); some blacks
life in the mills
at first it was good (waltham mill) later awful from competition
Escalation to War (KS-NB bill/Bleeding Kansas/Dred Scott)
1. at the time of the DOI, SC forced the colonies to accept slavery
2. At the time of writing the consitution, SC forced the states to accept slavery
3.Compromises- 1820, restricted the growth of slavery in the LA Territory; 1850- the fugitive slave act was to be enforced (but the north didnt, so it made southerners mad)
4. KA/NB Bill (popular soveigrenty)
5. Bleeding Kansas (John Brown, Border Ruffians, Free Soilers)
6. Dred Scott Decision- supreme court says/realizes there is no longer such a thing as a free state
7. Haper's Ferry Raid (John Brown)
8. Lincoln's election (1860)
9. Secession
10. Confederates fire on -The Star of the West-
11. Fort Sumpter
Christopher Columbus
an italian sailor working for spain; discovered the New World in 1492 while searching for a water route to Asia
John Smith
the first true leader in Englsh North America "those who dont work, dont eat"
John Winthrop
Puritan governor and minister; led the Great Migration of Puritans to New England
Roger Williams
dissident (doesnt agree with a large group) Puritan minister; banished from MA for his ideaes; founded settlement of Providence; later a colony of RI
William Penn
Quaker; founder and proprietor of PA
Benjamin Franklin
most famous English colonist in America; scientist; author; publisher of Poor Richards Alminac; invetor of bifocals; Renaissance man
Joy Hakim
author of our textbooks
George III
King of Great Britian during the American Revolution
Samuel Adams
the great agitator of the American Revolution
Patrick Henry
the great orator of the Amer. Revolution; "give me liberty or give me death"
Paul Revere
one of the multiple riders that warned that the British were coming; became famous by a poet
George Washington
1. led continental army in the Amer. Rev.
2. was the president of the Constitutional Convention
3. first president of the US
4. a model of civic virtue; turned down being king
Lewis and Clark
on pres. Jefferson's orders, they explored the LA Purchase recording what was there and reporting it back to the president
Francis Scott Key
wrote the star spangled banner at Ft. McHenry at the battle of Baltimore in 1812
Andrew Jackson
7th pres of the US; first self-made president; was an indian fighter; here of the Battle of New Orleans; first to campaign* for president; ordered removal of indians (including Trail of Tears) killed the bank; established pet banks;
Samuel Slater
English mill-manager who smuggled the technology for a power loom to the US for the reward; he established his mill in New England paving the way for the industrialization for the North
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton-gin; made slaver profitable again
Winfield Scott
hero of the Mexican/American war; forced Cherokee on the Trail of Tears; developed the Anaconda Plan
Frederick Douglass
escaped slave; abolitionist speaker; wrote his autobiography
Joseph Smith
founded Mormanism (church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saents) saw vision of book of Mormon (another book of the Bible); killed in jail in western IL after advocating polygamy
Brigham Young
second leader of Mormon Church; took over after Joseph Smith's death and led the followers to Salt Lake City, UT
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
1. mexican dictator
2. came in and out of power several (6) times
3. bad general, good organizer
4. lost TX and what is now the Southwestern US
Zachary Taylor
Hero of Buena Vista; 12th pres
Sarah Pierce *and* Mary Lyon
advanced education for females
Sarah Pierce
Litchfield Female Academy
Mary Lyon
Mt. Holyoke College
Dred Scott
1. a slave owned by a Missouri doctor
2. taken to free state of IL and free WI territory
3. when they returned to Missouri, Scott sued for his freedom
4. case went to Supreme Court where they decided...
5. Scott was still a citizen and not a slave; there is no longer such a thing as a free state; slaves are property and it's the government's responsiblity is to protect one's property wherever within the US
"i forbid" is the literal translation in latin; the check the president has on the power of congress; a veto kills a bill that has been passed; it may be overridden
checks and balances
the system put in place by the constitution to divide the power of government equally btwn the 3 branches and to ensure that no branch can gain more power than the others (by James Madison)
alien and sedition acts
these laws passed by the federalist administration of president John Adams which severely cut personal freedoms; they died because of a sunset clasues and the federalist party died out after them
the declaration of independence
signed july 4, 1776; by 2nd continental congress; officially separated britain from the US
the constitution
the document that gives the framework of american government; institutes a system of checks and balances; separates the 3 branches; longest kind of surviving government in the world
telling a story in such a way that the listener must come to a certain conclusion
"the shot heard 'round the world"
first shot of the american revolution; fired at Lexington, MA; issued in the Age of Rev.
people or countries working together militarily or economically
people either killed in battle or severely wounded so that they cannot continue with their duties as soldiers
the stopping of traid through military might
an armed conflict to oust a government and replace it with an entirely new one
an armed conflict; the purpose of which is to force a government to change somthing that it is doing
soldiers who fight for $$ and not for patriotism or a cause
external tax
tax added onto a price at time of sale (stamp act)
internal tax
tax included into price already (townshend act)
voluntarily refusing to do something (boycotting of British goods at the American Revolution)
English Bill of Rights
signed by William and Mary; extended rights granted to nobles from the Magna Carta to all english-men-
rights vs. privelages
rights-cannot be taken away except for due process of law
privelages- requires the permission of another
magna carta
signed in 1215 by King John forever limiting the power of english kings
where wildnerness meets civilization; allowed others to find oppurtunity to find land
natural rights
a philosiphy that each human is given by god certain rights (life, liberty, property) and that men may give up their rights in exchange for protection of government; different than european idea like the divine right of kings
economic point of view
seeing something through the filter of economics (cost, benefit, analasys... "is it worth the buy/cause?")
the period in amer. history immediatly prior to the civil war; it described the social, artistic, architectural and political works of the day
anything generally acepted for goods or services or in payment of debt; it must be portable, generally accepted, measure and store of value, must be divisible
a period of drastic decline of economic activity accompanied by rising unemployment
popular sovereignty
the idea that the people of a newly fromed state would vo to decide whether that state would(nt) have slavery
the act of a state leaving a country politically
civil war
a war fought btwn. groups within a country
period immediately after the Civil War (1865-1877) when the south was rebuilt; it cam in two stages:
-first two years "Presidential Reconstruction" and were run by Andrew Johnson
-rest yrs. "Congressional Reconstrucion" and were run by Radical Republicans because they could override any veto by pres. Johnson

the south remained economically backward and racially segregated; still, all troops were taken out of the south in 1877 to fulfill a campaign promise from pres. Rutheford B. Hayes

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