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Key Terms from Ethnology of Latin American Indigenous People


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Explain Ayllu
Marriage proposal among Quechua where representatives for the groom go to the bride's home and offer coca and chicha.
Reciprocal labour system for Quechua where family and friends are invited to work and provided food, coca and chicha. Obligation to reciprocate***
Among Quechua - one goes from house to house and asks neighbours to help in labour project. Unlike Ayni, no obligation to reciprocate
Garden plot that the women tend
Indigenous group from N.W. Columbia
Ritual in dry season - Animals are honoured, people drink chicha and chew coca and dance with the animals
Quechua term for one who is an outsider or isolated. One who is considered 'qala' does not form part of the Ayllu
A type of social organization among the Quechua/Aymara that all members must belong to
Guina Pigs
An important part of Andean society. They are consumed for special occassions, but otherwise live in the kitchen and eat fresh veggie leftovers. They reproduce fast

Sara - corn

Saramama - sacred corn
One who grows coca
Evo Morales
Close to becoming president of Bolivia - Cocalero leader- Against coca eradication - can't go to USA
-February 15, 2003 - held protest against coca eradication
February 15, 2003
Evo Morales, cocalero leader, staged a protest in Bolivia against the eradication of coca
May 2004
-Lima, Peru.
- 5,000 cocaleros protested:
a) spraying of pesticides;
b) eradication of coca
Presidente Alejandro Toledo
-USA- leaning
-mass demonstration in April
Juan Choque
-Shot dead September 28
- 19 others were injured
- Bolivia
-Cocaleros not eradicated
La Paz, December 2000
-Road block between Cocha Bamba and Santa Cruz in Chapare region
Another name for Chicha
Was the name of Cuzco
An important concept in Andean society, esp. among Quechua
-Signifies the middle where any two things are joined
Guinea Pig
Cargo System
Traditional system - once on marries, they are obligated to give a large party (once a year)
Envoys of the Apu
Mountian = Rich creator
Treaty of Killin
-Mapuche nation recognized by the European powers
- 1st indigenous nation to be recognized in this way
When did the Mapuch first lose control of their lands?
Pedro de Valdivio
-Conquered Pinuche
-assassinated by Mapuche
Elmapun, Elchen, Ngunemapun, and Ngunechen
Spiritual family that creates and sustains both people and nature
Refers to a spiritual leader, usually a woman, who maintains communication with celestial family
Sacred drum which is played during ceremonial activities
Mapun Kuse-Fucha
This is what is said during times of distress
When did Argentina amend the constitution so that the Indigenous peoples' rights to the land were recognized?
In 1994
-Italian clothing company
-bought 900,000 sq. hectares of land
-also controls telecommunications in Europe and freeways
Alfredo Stroessner
General - military dictator in Paraguay from 1954-1989
Jesuit Republic
-More powerful than Rome
-Was disbanded
-were asked to leave country
-Made Yanomamo famous in the 1960's
This was the first city to develop an opera house in the 1940's
Also called Yano or Malocas
-House of the Yanomamo
-6 meters sq. per person
Extended Yanomamo family
-means people, or people of
Means "forest"
-connected to Shabono
Robert Carneiro
-people who lose at war become like slaves
When did Argentina and Chile gain independence?
Argentina - 1810
Chile - 1818
Pacification of the Arawkanan
Chilean take-over of Mapuche land
Campaign of the Desert
Argentinian take-over of indigenous ppl's land
1) 1869-1870
2) 1880
1) 1869-70:
Major rebellion in Chile over land. Defeated by Chilean army

2) 1880:
Another revolt and defeat
Lived at end of Patagonia
Inka Cola
- tradional soft-drink in Peru which was taken over by Coca Cola
Derrogatory term applied to the Ache people
"Indian Problem"
Refers to the point of view that issues with respect to Indigenous must be solved (but how, through assimilation? eradication??)
-military objective
May 3, 1986
Mass celebration in Paraguay to celebrate Adolf Hitler
Nazi leader and cult leader in Chile (1974)
Patch of forest burnt to fertilize soil
Live on Eastern side of Ecuador
-Live in Eastern Peru
-Feathers are important to them
- parrot feathers suggest trade
Neighbours of Huitotos that wear Western-styled clothing
Fernando Romeo Lucas Garcia
He, his brother, and the former defense minister are accussed of ordering 10 massacres on Indian villages in 1981 and 1982 in Guatemala
The Burlington Oil Company
Houston-based oil company that owns Chevron
-In Peru they own 1 oil block
-In Ecuador they own 2
-Bombed Waoarani long houses
- 1.5 billion dollar class action suite against Chevron
-Animal from India
-Meat is consumed, but not milk
Jose Carlos Mariategui
Indian Problem
-NE Brazil near Xingu River
-Famous because of Carneiro
-taboo against eating pecaries
Peru 1990's natural gas reserve found by Shell. It holds 11 trillion cubic feet
** not that Bolivia has 2nd largest oil reserve
Sanchez de Rosara
Fromer Bolivian president who was overthrown who will go on trial for deaths; Must use natural gas to pay off debt
Carlos Mesa
Bolivia - has until May 1, 2005 to change issues centreing around natural gas...
Rigoberta Menchu
-Indigenous woman (Quiche) from Guatemala who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for "Me Llamo Rigoberta Menchu..."; After the deaths of her father Vicente, her mother, her 16 yr old brother, and others, went to Mexico as a refugee

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