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APEuro Ch 25 Vocab

Terms

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Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany
Realpolitik
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian
Napoleon III
Original Napoleon's nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
Ems Dispatch
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state
Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Zollverein
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1834 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs
Carbonari
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots
Panslavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877
Bundesrat
The federal council of Austrian government
Carlsbad Decrees
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich
Mazzini
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
Risorgimento
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850
Ausgleich, 1867
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary
Volksgeist
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries
Count Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
Alexander II
(r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Nationalism
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence.
Grossdeutsch
Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans"
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck
Pogroms
Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia
Leopold II
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa
Constitutional monarchy
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.
Kleindeutsch
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans"
Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force
Reichstag
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power
Zemstvos
Local assemblies in Russia
Liberalism
The base ideas of liberty & equality
Magyars
In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both this groups peasantry & the minority population.

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