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American Poltical Process Final


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What statement is true about the place of the US in the world in the late 1990s?

a. The US is the world's only superpower
b. American national security is increasingly being defined in economic rather than military terms.
c. the pres
d. all of the above
What is the consequence of economic globalization for American economic interests?
Foreign firms may use their comparative advatage to outposition American firms in the global marketplace.
What did the Marshall Plan do?
invested billions of American dollars in the rebuilding of Westerm European economics.
The idea that major nations should act together in response to problems and crises is called ___.
For the most balanced assesment of foreign and military policy issues, the president in most instances would be advised to follow the recommendations of the ___.
National Security Council
The policy of deterrence, which the US followed during the Cold War, is based on what idea?
The best protection against attack by an enemy is the capacity to retaliate with a devastating attack of one's own.
Whta has been the fundamental cause for insurgency in the Third World?
grievances against economically and politically-powerful rulin g elites
In an address to the nation, which president warned of the emergence of the military-industrial complex?
Dwight Eisenhower
What do broad US goals in the economy include?
sustaining an open system of trade that will promote domestic prosperity

maintaing access to energy and other vital sources

preserving a stable international economy by controlling the gap between the rich and poor nations
As an instrument of the US economic policy, has military force become more or less important and why?
Military force has become less important because the world economy is nowso interconnected that the use of military force would usually be more disruptive than helpful.
About what percentage of America's annual budget goes toward foreign aid?
less than 1%
What did George Kennan's containment doctrine profess?
the Soviet Union was paranois about its concern for regional security

the Soviet Union might someday become a mature, responsible world power

the US would have to take the lead in checking Soviet power
In fiscal year 2001, approximately how much money did the US spend on intelligence gathering?
$25 billion
Regarding Soviet foreign policy, President Truman believed that the Soviet Union was

a. a global threat
b. a regional threat, i.e., a danger to Europe
c. not a threat to its neighbors, Europe, or the United States
d. likely to e
a. a global threat
What was the main lesson of Vietnam for the United States?
there are limits to America's power and will
What did the term "detente" mean?
an era of "relaxing" of tensions between the US and USSR
When did the US last have a trade surplus?
What is important about the secretary of defense?
he is almost always an important policymaker

his influence depends upon his president's needs and inclinations
For what purpose was NATO originally created?
to defend Western Europe against Soviet attack
What does the "tripolar economic world" consist of?
Japan, the US and Europe
What is the approximate per capita level of defense spending in the US?
Who is the recipient of the most foreign aid from America?
How does the US stand in global trade?
It is both the world's leading export nation and the world's leading import nation.
Which economic organization makes long-term loans to the poorer nations of the world?
World Bank
The US defense budget is ___.
the largest in the world

The major lesson of Munich was that appeasement policy does not work.

U.S. national security policy after World War II was built chiefly upon a concern with the power and intentions of the Soviet Union.

Nearly everyone agrees that the U.S. could have won the Vietnam War with the use of sufficient military force.

The Vietnam War produced deep divisions in American public opinion which remain to the present day.

"Detente" refers to the new era of U.S.-Soviet communication and cooperation that began when it became clear the United States would not win the Vietnam War.

The object of deterrence was to assure an American victory over the Soviet Union during a full-scale nuclear war.

The object of deterrence is to prevent a nuclear war from ever occurring.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has recently given greater attention to such problems as drug trafficking, industrial espionage, and terrorism.

The United States works through agencies such as the IMF and WTO to promote economic development and free trade.

The end of the Cold War has reduced the likelihood of unlimited conventional war.

U.S. national security policy has increasingly included a concern for the country's economic strength.

The president is more likely than members of Congress to support protectionist trade policies.

Presidents have been more supportive of free trade than has Congress.
Cold War
The lengthy period after WWII when the US and the USSR were not engaged in actual combat (a "Hot war") but were nonteless locked in a state of deep-seated hostility.
A doctrine developed after WWII, based on the assumptions that the Soviet Union was an aggressor nation and that only a determined US could block Soviet Territorial ambitions.
a French world meaning "a relaxing" and used to refer to an era of improved relations between the US and the Soviet Union that began in the early 1970's.
The idea that nuclear war can be discouraged if each side in a conflict has the capacity to destroy the other with nuclear weapons.
economic globalization
The increased interdependence of nation's economis as a result of the impact of the transportation and communication revolutions on how business firms conduct their operations.
free trade
The view that all countries benefit to the degree that trade between them is no impeded by tariffs and other forms of protectionism.
A type of military conflit in which irregular soldiers rise up against an established regime.
The view that the country should involve itself deeply in world affairs.
The view that the country should deliberately avoid a large role in world affairs and, instead, concentrate on domestic concerns.
military-industrial complex
The three componenets (the military establishment, the industries that manufacture weapons, and the memebers of Congress from states and districts that depend heavily on the arms industry) that mutually benefit from a high level of defense spending.
The situation in which nations act together in repsonse to problems and crisis.
multinational corporations
Business firms that have significant operations in more than one country.
The view that the immediate interestes of domestic producers should have a higher priority (through, for example, protective tariffs) than free trade between nations.
What has most strongly affected American national identity?
political beliefs
The relatively low levels of spending on social welfare in the United States most clearly reflects what American ideal?
Cultural beliefs are said to be "mythical ideas," which means that they are ___.
symbolic postures that reflect partly what is ideal and partly what is real
What two social conditions produce political conflict within a nation?
scarcity and opposing values
The __________ is the set of rules determining who will exercise the authority of government.
What are the two kinds of inputs in the political system?
supports and demands
What are core ideals of the American political culture?
liberty, diversity and unity
The fact that Americans "form an indivisible union" relates best to which ideal?
Which of the following has not usually resisted the expansion of the government's social welfare role?
liberal Democrats
Compared to the American educational system, how can the European educational system best be described?
What is one effect of the American government's system of checks and balances?
extreme fragmentation of gov't authority
In what type of economic system does the government take the biggest role in managing the economy?
communist-style socialism
Which theory places the most emphasis on the role of interest groups in explaining who governs America?
What is the "most basic concept of politics"?
Governmental authority differs from other types of authority in society due to what?
potential level of coercion and geographical pervasiveness
What do the Greek words "demos" and "kratis" together mean?
the people rule
One fear about majority rule in a democracy is that it could lead to what?
tyranny by suppressing the minority
What are important principles of capitalism?
free enterprise, self-reliance and an open marketplace.
What does the concept of majoritarianism mean?
the majority determines public policy
What was Sociologist C. Wright Mills a proponent of?
elite theory
In the political system model, what would public opinion and voting represent?
political inputs
What is the most important question involving a democracy?
What is the relationship of people to their government?
What is authority?
the recognized right of an official or institution to make decisions
Between 1820 and 1990, which country sent the most immigrants to the United States?
What are two things common to all governments?
a means of raising revenue and the power of coercion

Although they have changed substantially in practice during the nation's history, the ideals that characterized America's founding are still basic components of the nation's political life.

Basic constitutional questions are never fully settled; each generation must find new answers.

Politics may be defined as the struggle over "who gets what, when, and how."

Politics involves conflict and consensus competition and cooperation.

Under American capitalism, the federal government is expected to manage the national economy.

Free enterprise and self-reliance characterize capitalism.

Capitalism, democracy, and constitutionalism are "neutral" rules of the game in the sense that they are equally advantageous to all interests in society.

Like all rules of the game of politics, democracy, constitutionalism, and capitalism enable some interests to gain advantage over others.

Alexis de Tocqueville's "Habits of the heart" referred to Americans' ideals.

The United States spends more on government programs for the poor than other industrialized democracies.

The reverse is true.

The United States has always been a nation of immigrants.

Because of their nation's history, most Americans believe that they cannot make it on their own.

Plentiful land and no aristocracy gave early Americans the belief that they could make it on their own.
The recognized right of an official or institution to exercise power.
An economic system based ont he idea that government should interfere with economic transactions as little as possible. Free enterprise and self-reliance are the collective and individual principles that undermine capitalism.
The ideaz that there are definable limits on the rightful power of a government over its citizens.
The form of government in which the people govern, either directly or throuhg elected representatives.
The principle that individual differences should be respected, are a legitimate basis of self-interest, and are a source of strength for the American nation.
The view that the US is essentially run by a tiny elite (comprised of wealthy or well-connected individuals) who control public policy through both direct and indirect means.
The principle that all individuals have moral worth and are entitled to fair treatment under the law.
The institutions, processes and rules thar are designed to facilitat a declared authority's control of a particular area and its inhabitants.
A philosophical belief that stresses the value of hard work and self-reliance, and holds that the individual should be left to succeed or to fail on his or her own.
The principle that the people should be free to act and think as they choose, provided they do not infringe unreasonably on the rights of others.
The idea that the majority previals not only in elections, but also in determining policy.
A theory of American politics that holds that society's interests are substantially represented through the activities of various groups, and driven by the interests of these distinct (plural) groups.
Generally, any broad coarse of government action; more narrowly, a specific government program or intiative.
political culture
The deep-seated and characteristic beliefs of a particular people, which often informs decisions on policy and government operation.
political system
The various, separate components of American government that connect with one another and influence each others' performance.
The process throuhg which society makes its governing decisions.
The ability of persons, institutions or groups to control policy.
The principle that the people are the ultimate source and proper beneficiary of governing authority; in practice, a government based on majority rule.
The principle that Americans are one People, who form an indivisible union.
Opponents of the constitution during the debate over its ratification. The main objection posed by the Anti-Federalists was the fear that the centralized government would be too powerful, failing to recognize the sovereignty of the component states.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, (all ratified in 1791) which set forth basic protections for individual rights to free expression, fair trial and property.
Checks and Balances
The elaborate system of divided spheres of authority provided byt he US constitution as a means of controlling the power of government. The separation of powers among the braches of the national government, federalism and the different methods of selecting national officers are all part of this system.
The fundamantal law thatd efines how a government will operate legitimately.
Constitutional Democracy
A government that is democratic in its provisions for majority influence through elections and constitutional in its provisions for minority rights and its rule by law.
The idea of elected representatives as obliged to carry out the expressed wishes of the electorate.
denials of power
A constitutional mean sof limiting government action by listing those powers that government is expressly prohibited from using.
electoral college
A grouo of delegates responsible for the election fo the President, initially, the framers granted the electors somewhat independent power to vote the President into office; however, after the election of 1828, Andrew Jackson advocated a revision fo the law, requiring that electoral votes be tied into the popular vote in order to ensure that the popular vote not be outweighed by the will of the electors. Each states has as many electoral votes as representatives in Congress.
electoral votes
Each state has as many electoral votes as it has representatives in Congress. Whichever candidate wins the majority of the popular vote in the Presidential Elections, wins that state's number of electoral votes. The candidate who wins the most number of electoral votes is elected President.
Supporters of the Consitution in the debate of its ratification.
grants of power
The method of limting the US government by confining its scope of authority to those powers expressly granted in the Constitution.
Great Compromise
The agreement of the consitutional convention to create a two-chamber Congress with the House apportioned by population and the Senate apportioned equally by state.
inalienable (natural) rights
Those rights that persons theoretically possessed in the state of nature, prior to the formation of governments. These rights, including those of life, liberty and property, are considered inheritent and as such are inalienable. Since government is established by people, government has the responsibility to preserve these rights.
judicial review
The power of the courts to decide whether a governmental institution has acted within its consitutional powers and, if not, to declare its action void.
limited government
A government that is subject to strict limits on its lawful uses of powers and hence on its ability to deprive people of their liberty.
New Jersey (small state) Plan
Proposal made by New Jersey Delegate William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention that called for a stronger national government with the power to tax and to regulate interstate commerce. Furthermore, in order to ensure the interests of smaller states were not outweighed by those of larger states, the New Jersey, or small-state, plan called for a single-chamber Congress, in which each state, regardless of size and population, would have one vote.
North-South (3/5) Compromise
Threatening to abandon plans for a Union and form a Union of their own, representatives of the Southern states, which relied heavily on slave labor and trade, worried that the burden of financing the new government would fall primarily on the South through taxation of exports and high tariffs on imported foreign goods, including taxation or prohibition of the slave trade. the Compromise agreed upon stipulated that while the exports could not be taxed, the federal government would reserve the right to tax imports. Moreover, Congress would not be allowed to intiate legislation to end the slave trade until 1808. Runaway slaves were, by law, to be returned to their home state, and finally , for purposes of taxation and representation, five slaves were to be equal to three white people, or each slave was considered to be 3/5 of a person when determining taxes and Congressional representatives.
representative democracy
A system in which people participate in the desicion-making process of government not directly but indirectly, through the election of officials to represent their interests.
Historically, the form of government in which representative officials meet to decide on policy issues. These representatives were expected to serve the public interest but were not subject to the people's immediate control. Today, the term republic is used interchangeably with democracy.
separated institutions sharing power
The principle that, as a way to limit government, its powers should be divided among seperate branches, each of which also shares in the power with others as a means of checking and balancing them them. The result is that no branch can exercise power decisively without the support or aquiescence of the others.
separation of powers
The principle of dividing the powers of government among separate branches.
The idea of elected representatives as obligated to act in accordance with their own conscience as to what policies are in the best interest of the public.
tyranny of the majority
The potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gains and to the detriment of minority rights and interests.
Virginia (large state) Plan
Dominated by Nationalists, the representatives of the Virginia Deligation called for a two-chamber Congress that would have supreme authority in all areas "in which separate states are incompetent," especially in matters of defense and interstate trade. Furthermore, the plan stipulated that the states would have a numerical representation in Congress in proportion to their populations or tax contributions, greatly outnumbering the representatives of small states. Small states, such as Rhode Island, would have only one representative, while states like Virginia and Massachusetts would have more than a dozen.
Locke's conception of inalienable rights and the legitimacy of the social contract found its most explicit statement in what?
the Declaration of Independence
The principle of checks and balances is based on what notion?
power must be used to offset power
In Federalist No. 10, Madison warns against which dangers?
As part of its power to "check" the courts, Congress has what constitutional authority?
decide the number of Supreme Courts justices

decide the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court

impeach and remove federal judges
In practice, what is the most significant restraint imposed by Congress on the president?
power to make the laws and appropriate money
Judged in the context of U.S. history, what is the most effective constitutional constraint on abuses of power?
the separation of powers
The initiative and referendum are more common in which states?
the midwestern and western states
The traditional objection to democratic government is the risk of what?
tyranny of the majority
In the Framers' minds, what was the public's true interest best represented by?
workings of a properly structured system of government
Originally, how were senators elected?
the state legislatures
Thomas Jefferson proclaimed the "Revolution of 1800" the victory of what?
the common people over wealthy interests
What did the "spoils systems" refer to?
the rotation of public offices instituted by Andrew Jackson
The formation of the grass-roots political party occurred during whose presidency?
Andrew Jackson
Which reforms were accomplished during the Progressive era?
direct election of senators

initiative and referendum

primary elections
The only process used to date to formally amend the Constitution calls for what?
a 3/4 vote of both houses of Congress and 2/3 of state legislatures
In arguing that representatives should use their own judgment in deciding how best to serve their constituencies, Edmund Burke supported the view of the representative as ___.
What did the major goals of the Framers of the Constitution include?
establishing a government strong enough to meet the nation's needs
In theory, what happens to powers not expressly granted to the national government by the Constitution?
are denied to it
According to John Locke, what do people's inalienable rights include?
life, liberty, and property
Under the Articles of Confederation...
the national government did not have the power to tax

all thirteen states had to agree to any changes to the Articles

each state had one vote in Congress
The Constitution forbids Congress from doing what?
passing bills of attainder

passing ex post facto laws

imprisoning a subject indefinitely without charge or trial
Which state had the greatest percentage of African-Americans living within its borders in 1790?
South Carolina
Which of the following nations has neither "separation of powers" nor "judicial review"?
Great Britain
What did the "Great Compromise" propose?
a two-house Congress, one apportioned by population and the other apportioned equally among the states
Why did Antifederalists oppose the proposed Constitution?
the new national government would encroach on liberty

the president could become too powerful

it could be used by the wealthy to exploit the average citizen

ohn Locke maintained that a government, if originally put into place by legitimate means, could never be revoked legitimately.

The government may be changed if it fails in its only legitimate purpose: to protect the inalienable rights of its citizens.

The doctrine of the separation of powers as employed by the Framers was taken directly from that proposed by Montesquieu.

The Framers added the significant idea that the powers of government should be separate and overlapping-that each branch should share the responsibility for each function of government in order to prevent gross abuses by the others.

The case of Marbury v. Madison established the power of the Supreme Court to decide the constitutionality of an act of Congress.

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