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Western Civilization Final


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Medieval- Gothic cathedral
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.thrust upward reaching toward heaven.
Locke vs. Hobbes
Locke believed that everyone had their own natural rights. Hobbes believed that you have to give up your right to the government
who is ptolemy?
ptolemy was alexandrias last reknown astronomer who incorrectly placed earth in the center of the solar system. he created the geocentric theory.
Renaissance - predestination
The belief that all events are willed by God. God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell.
Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to god
Medieval- knight
originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry
Middle Ages- feudalism
a political system in which nobles were granted the use of the kings land in return for loyalty and military service for the king
Renaissance - to what extent did humanism dominate the Renaissance?
It greatly influenced education, the arts, history, literature, and philosophy by reinterpreting the scholars previous views.
Renaissance - Diet of worms
In 1521, Charles V summoned Luther here and forced Luther to recant everything Luther said, but Luther went up to him and said "Here I stand". As a result he was exiled out of the Holy Roman Empire.
who is copernicus?
a polish cleric and astronomer who became interested in the geocentric theory. discovered the heliocentric theory that say that thee planets rotate around the sun
Edward VI
Henry VIII son. 9 years old when he became king, made England move towards Protestantism during his reign because of his adult advisor's. Made new practices, clergy could marry, iconic images removed from churches, and communion by the laity was expanded. Made new doctrines, salvation by faith alone, denial of transubstantiation, and only baptism and Communion
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 - many marriages led to conflict with Catholic church, founded church of england
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon - Ruled after Edward restored Catholic church
Medieval- Crusades - intolerance
Intolerance for any religion besides Christianity(Muslims and jews). Caused bitterness and hate for Christians and jews who remained in the Muslim region.
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Sir Issac Newton
english scientist who helped bring together previous scientists discoveries under a single theory of motion.
Renaissance - to what extent did Calvinism promote capitalism
Medieval- the crusades
Lead by pope to take over the Holy Land. left distrust between Christians and Muslims to this day lasting positive effects was to stimulate trade between Europe and Southwest Asia.
a scientis who developed analytical geometry providing a new tool for scientific research
controlling of all aspects of society
Renaissance - Luthers view on how bible should be used
?Faith alone is key to salvation
Renaissance - John Calvin
theological writing influenced religious thought of Europeans, developed Calvinism,wrote institutes of Christian religion, believed theocracy was ideal gov't where reliogus leaders run gov't, very moral & strict - Geneva Switzerland - "ideal " moral society,
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
Renaissance - What were the values reflected in Renaissance art?
Nature, communication of human emotion mathematical perspective, rationality, classicism, anatomy, symmetry, balance, proportion, harmony
What was the Glorious Revolution?
The bloodless overthrow of the english king James II and his replacement by william and mary
Dark Ages- Charlemagne
spread Christian civilization through northern Europe. king of the holy roman empire
Renaissance - Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
Wanted to bring back the classical Greece and Rome, thriving cities for idea development, wealthy merchant class that dominated politics, looked down on the art of the middle ages and returned to the heritage of Greece and Rome.
Dark Ages- holy roman empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Renaissance - What was the impact of the printing press?
Allowed Renaissance ideas to be spread quickly, spread ideas against & critical of the church
Constitutional Monarchy
a system of governing in which the rulers power is limited by law
mathmatician continued tycho brahe's work in which the planets were recorded. concluded that certian laws govern planetary motion
Middle Ages- fiefs
pieces of land given to vassals by their lord
Renaissance - Avignon Papacy
When the pope moved the papacy from Rome to Avignon France for 69 years. It weakened the church because the French king gained more power because of the 7 popes that were all French. The people started to loose trust in the Pope. because they were being taxed.
Renaissance - Martin Luther sacraments
1) bible was the only legitimate authority, 2) salvation came only from faith, 3)all church teachings should be based on words of bible, 4) all people of faith are equal
mutual exchange of commercial or other privileges
Medieval- Monasticism
Monks and other religious people secluding themselves and devoting themselves to the church. Led to the spiritual revival.
Middle Ages- manors
lords large farm estates of the Middle Ages that were owned by nobles who ruled over the peasants living in the land
Dark Ages - split between western and eastern churches
Spanish Armada
(1588) In this battle Phillip II tried to attack England but his naval fleet was completely destroyed
Renaissance - Johann Tetzel
A friar who was the leading seller of Indulgences to get $ to rebuild a cathedral. Infuriated Luther.
Dark Ages- to what extent is Islam a religion of peace?
Islam is in fact a religion that promotes peace and understanding among people of all faiths, and it strongly prohibits all forms of violence and aggression against all people regardless of their faith or race.
brings together several people, states, or countries under a single ruler/authority, Mesopotamia was the 1st
Renaissance - the elect calvinism
Mary Queen of Scots
Renaissance - What was medieval art like?
Medieval art is abstract, formulaic, flat, no perspective.
Medieval- the black death
Was a disease that was formed by the Bubonic Plague ( formed by rats) it killed 1/3 of the population of Europe. It occurred around 1348. Trade and population declined, prices rose, serfs left the manors in search of better wages, nobles resisted paying more which caused peasant revolts church lost prestige because their prayers failed, priests abandoned their duties
MiddleAges- vassalage
the state of a serf, free man proclaims dependence & faithfulness on another man & promises to serve him (usually militarily)
Medieval- medieval church and its relics
sculptures, carvings, and stained glass. inspired the worshiper with the magnificence of god
Renaissance - consistory
a church council of 12 elders that had power over peoples daily lives (established by Calivin)
The Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the french king Henry IV promised that prodestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
Renaissance - What events led to the Reformation?
Avignon papacy - unfair taxation, people lost trust in papacy, Great Schism - 2 popes in position at same time, people lost faith in church because of division of power, Conciliar Period - ended the great schism through election of a new pope - this movement changed the final authority in spiritual matters from the pope to councils. Huss - heretic burned at stake for urging elimination of the corruption of the clergy, Wycliff - beleived pope should live without authority and property & rejected all practices not mentioned in the scriptures., Rennasiance papacy - popes were not acting like religuous figures, practiced nepotism(family members), getting married, fought wars, corrupt, illiterate. Martin Luther 95 thesis.
home of Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette
what was Galileo's conflict with the church?
found that the moon and stars are not made of pure substance. supported Copernicus' theory. findings frightened protestant and catholic church because it contradicted the church.
Renaissance - Luther 95 thesis
response to Tetzel's indulgences tactics, he wrote statements attacking the "pardon merchants" and posted on church door. They were copied and taken to the printer.
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group, judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards
Renaissance - clergy
persons with the authority to perform religious services.
Reformation - to what extent did Henry VIII reform the church?
Henry sought an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she could not conceive a son. Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England
Dark Ages- Five Pillars of Islam
1: faith, allah is the only god. 2: pray 5 times a day 3: alms/charity money for the poor 4: fasting during Ramadan 5: pilgrimage to mecca at least once
Renaissance - Good Works vs. justification by faith alone
Renaissance - excommunication
expelling someone from the Church
Philip II
Defended Catholicism, launched the spanish armada in an attempt to punish protestant england and queen Elizabeth I and lost.
Middle ages- world view of the people
economic system was small and dependent on local manors, church had power over thier lives, code of behavior was guided by chivalry, power was based on land ownership
Peter the Great
became the sole ruler of Russia in 1696. he reformed russia by bringing the Russian Orthodox church under control. reduced power of landowners recruited men from lower ranking families, hired european officers for the army and built St. Petersburg as a trade center. this weakened Russias economy
Renaissance - Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Louis XIV
poor king of france who was succeeded in the 1700's. he married Marie Antoinette and caused France to go bankrupt
Renaissance - laity
everyone except the clergy
Renaissance - benefices
Many clerics held offices called benefices to perform the spiritual responsibilities they were entitled to do. Instead, they collected revenues and hired a poor priest to do the spiritual duties of the local church. (p.452)
Medieval- the importance of the castle
A castle was built as a fortress that was very difficult to penetrate or be invaded by enemies. It protected the inhabitants, usually the rulers of the land or king and queen and the'court'. It was self sustainable so the residents could live within the castle without having to go outside the castle.
Medieval- chivalry
the medieval principles of knights for courage in battle , 3 masters - his feudal lord, heavenly lord &lady, and loyalty to their lord, respect for woman, shaped modern ideas of romance in western cultures
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Elizabeth I
Ruled after Mary Tudor- Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

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