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SOL Review


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christopher columbus
sailed across the atlantic to find and alternate trade route to asia, but instead reached an island in the caribbean
Suleyman the Lawgiver
Created a law code, simplified the system of taxation and reduced government bureaucracy.
Otto von Bismarck
conservative junker chosen by wilhelm I of germany as prime minister in 1862
aztec emporer invaded by hernado cortes and his forces
God, Glory, Gold
primary motives for exploration-desire to spread christianity, find new sources for wealth, discover new lands and expand borders
a person who organizes, manages, and takes on risks of a business
middle class
a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, bussinesspeople, and wealthy farmers
Camillo di Cavour
known for leading italian unification, he was named prime minister of sardinia
a grant of land made by spain to a settler in the americas, including the right to use native americans as laborers on it
people native to Manchuria, who ruled china during the Qing dynasty
when england restored the monarchy by bringing charles II to the throne
Prince Henry
Known as "the navigator" wanted to spread christianity in new lands by organizing 14 voyages along the coast of africa
Tennis Court Oath
after establishing the national assembly, the third estate delegates, locked out of their meeting room, broke down a door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new contitution
a brilliant general, he laid the foundation for the vast Mughal empire.
business organization that is run by professional managers and that is owned by stockholders who buy shares
follower of Osman.
Timur the Lame
named due to an injury by an arrow in the leg, this conqueor from Samarkand burned what is now the city of Baghdad, crushing the Ottoman forces at the battle of Ankara.
Klemens von Metternich
Austrias chief minister who presided over the congrees of vienna, believed that europe should be retored to the way it was before the french revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man
guaranteed rights such as liberty and most king's power
a warrior for islam.
French & Indian War
a conflict between britain and france for control of territory in north america
a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman empire, made up of christian slaves.
Elba Island
island off the coast of italy where napolean was sent in his second exile, dieing there six years later
an association of workers, formed to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
also known as king philip, known as king philips war, one of the bloodiest conflicts between colonists and native americans
an economic system in which all means of prodution are owned by the people
James Watt
scottish math wiz who designed as eficient steam engine, helping to set the industrial revolution in full motion by providing a cheap convinient source of power
the policy of taking boys from conquered christian peoples to be trained as muslim soldiers.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
leader of the group known as the red shirts, garibaldi was helped by cavour to unite southern italy.
Declaration of Independence
written by thomas jefferson, reflected ideas of john locke and the enlightenment
Oliver Cromwell
puritan general in english civil war became military dictator in 1653
Joint-Stock Company
a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
a brass circle with carefully adjusted rings marked off in degrees, by which a sea captain could calculate the ship's latitude
scorched-earth policy
the practice off burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
the Balkans
the region of southeastern europe now occupied by greece, albania, bulgaria, romania, the european part of turkey, and the former republics of yugoslavia
the hereditary right of a monarch to rule
a european who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments
a direct vote in which a countries people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
Continental System
napoleans policy of preventing trade between great britian and continental europe, intended to destroy great britians economy
New Netherlands
discovered by henry hudson- formed the dutch west india company
Tennis Court Oath
pledge made by members of Frnace's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until new constitution drawn up
Byzantine Empire
non-muslim religious communities permitted to follow their own religious laws and practices.
Third Estate
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
English Civil War
a conflict in which puritan supporters of parliament battled supporters of englands monarchy
Napoleonic Code
a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for france by napolean
One who doesn't believe in a certain religion.
Tokugawa Shogumate
a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867
William and Mary
king and queen of england after the glorious revolution; riled under a limited monarchy
Eli Whitney
american inventor who created a machine that removed seeds from cotton, greatly increasing the cotton production
Jean-Paul Marat
radical, revolutionary jounalist
french troops led by napolean were defeated by the armies of prussia, great britian, and the netherlands
a political state whose people also share the same language and culture
Invasion of Russia
napoleans most disastrous military campaign. the russian winter forced napolean to retreat. this loss will lead to napoleans downfall
a german emporer
a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at massachusetts bay in the early 1600s
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Second Estate
made up of rich nobles
crop rotation
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
Concert of Europe
a series of alliances among the european nations devised by prince klemens von metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
Industrial Revolution
the shift, begining I england during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine
a european who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of europe
Marie Antoinette
french queen and wife of louis XVI, member of the royal family of austria and unpopular among the french, known as madame deficit due to her excessive spending habits
machine for beheading people
Dutch East India Company
a company founded by the dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout asia.
Karl Marx
german journalist who introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called marxism
the development of industries for the machine production of goods
laissez faire
economic principle that government should not regulate busnesses
one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy british landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
a virginia colony settled by the english in 1607
Napolean Bonaparte
french general who overthrew the directory; proclaimed himself emporer and created a french empire in europe
the process of forcing russian culture on all ethnic groups in the russian empire
hereditary monarch of Iran
seperate legal courts pertaining to personal law under which minorities were allowed to rule themselves with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government.
political theory that national success justified the use of any means
federal system
a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states
Holy Alliance
a league of european nations formed by the leaders of russia, austria, and prussia after the congress of vienna
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the u.s. constitution, which protect citizens basic rights and freedoms
The Bastille
French prison that became known as a symbol of the royal abuse of power
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquisitorwho conquered the incan empire
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who discovered montreal and the St. lawrence river
Qing Dynasty
china's last dynasty, which ruled from 1644 to 1912 and expanded china's borders to include Taiwan, Chinese, Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet
a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
a Japanese fuedal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Columbian Exchange
the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occured during the european colonization of the americas
Old Regime
social and political system of Frnace in the 1770s
"Greatest One", indian ruler said to ruled with wisdon and tolerence.
Glorious Revolution
the bloodless overthrow of the english king james II and his replacement by william and mary
a showplace for artisans and considered one of the most beautiful capitals in the world.
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit
Reign of Terror
the period of Robespierre's rule; period of killing and unrest
Old Regime
the social and political system of france where people were divided into three large social classes or estates
First Estate
made up of clergy
radical group Parisian wage earners who wanted greater voice in govt.
considered a strong ruler, he built railroads, encouraged industrialization and promoted publis works. nephew of napolean bonaparte
social class system in france consisting of three large groups, credited with fostering great inequalities among the people by determining legal rights and status
Bartolomeu Dias
An early portuguese explorer known for his statement:"To serve God and his majesty, to give light ti those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do".
Agricultural Revolution
landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to increase crop yields, more scientific methods were used in farming
radical political organization
title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman empire.
Factory Act of 1819
first factory act in britian to exert some control over child labor in factory cities
Petition of Right
document signed by charles I in 1628, which limited the monarchs power
Shah Jahan
Created the Taj Mahal to enshrine hi wife after her death during child birth.
a large building in which machinery is used to manufacture goods
hebeas corpus
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Known as the most successful warrior, built a small muslim state in Anatolia.
a per capita tax imposed on non-muslim adult males in states ruled by Islamic law in order to freely worship.
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to the old system
to refuse to work in order to force an employer to meet certain demands
constitutional monarchy
a system of governing in which the rulers power is limited by law/contitution
economic philosophy, developed by jeremy bentham, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer credited with giving portugal a direct sea route.
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
Conquered by Mehmed II, considered the most dramatic feat in Ottoman history.
national razor
nickname for the guillotine
three large social classes
a person mixed spanish and native american ancestry
sturdier than earlier ships, triangular sails adopted from the Arabs helped vessel to sail effectively against the wind
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings which the european leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of napolean
assembly of representatives from all three estates
Louis XVI
king of France at the time of the French Revolution
Hundred Days
The breif period during 1815 when napolean made his last bid for power, desposing the french king and again becoming emporer of france
New France
the base of Frances colonial empire in north america, quebec, founded in 1608 by explorer samuel de champlain
Zheng He
a chinese muslim that led seven voyages of exploration un der the ming dynasty.
a government-run public school in france
Line of Demarcation
an imaginary longitude or north-south dividing line
the spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the americas
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city of region
a large tomb or building containing tombs.
the aztec capital
Guerilla warfare
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country
a group of people who founded the colony of plymouth
a share of ownership in a business
revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
Legislative Assembly
replaced National Assembly; took away most of King's power
coup d'etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
a european who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Marie Antoinette
queen of France; daughter of Maria Theresa, empress of Austria
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between portugal and spain, declaring the newly discovered lands to the west that would belong to spain and those to the east would belong to portugal
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which napoleans forces were defeated by a british fleet under the command of horatio nelson
stonrgly conservative members of prussias wealthy landowning class
Adam Smith
author of the wealth of nations defending the idea of free economy
hernando cortes
a spainiard, who in 1519, landed on the shores of mexico
Committee of Public Safety
led by Robespierre; enemies of the republic were executed
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the french countryside after the storming of the bastille in 1789
a land controlled by another nation
member of the nonviolent religious group whose beliefs blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism, target of the Mughals hatred.
checks and balances
measures designed to prevent and one branch of government from dominating the others
Shah Abbas
took the thronein 1587 and helped create the safavid culture.
one of the nomads who invaded the indian subcontinent in the 16th century and established a powerful empire there.
Taj Mahal
Built by Shah Jahan, considerd one of the worlds most beautiful buildings.
Mehmed II
Conquered Constantinople and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds.
Louis XVI
bourbon king during the french revolution, beheaded during the reign of terror
Alexander II
son of czar nicholas, hoped to move russia toward modernization and social change
factors of production
resources that are needed to produce goods and services
Ming Dynasty
a chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368 to 1644, the dominent power in asia
balance of power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
an instument for determining directions
Ruler that used strict enforcement of isled led to divisions and decentralization of the government.
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in persia between the 16th and 18th centuries.
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business wentures in order to make a profit
Charles I
stuart king of england, beheaded after the english civil war
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or empire
a religious tyrant who had citizens who did not convert, put to death.
puritan supporters of parliament, fighting the english civil war from 1642-1649

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