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All of Social Studies Vocab


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Stono Rebellion
slaves gathered at the Stono River with weapons and guns and killed several planter families and marched down to get more slaves to seek freedom in Florida
subsistence farming
farmers would produce just enough food for themselves and sometimes have extra to trade in town
It hit in 1845, a disease attacked Ireland's main food shortage called a crop, the potato, causing a severe food shortage. The Irish potato famine killed 1 million people and forced many to emigrate.
push-pull factor
These forces push people our of their native lands and pull then toward a new place. The push factors include the following, population growth, Agricultural changes, crop failures, industrial revolution, religious and political turmoil. The pull factors included freedom, economic opportunity, abundant land.
someone who went to California to find gold starting in 1849, most of the forty-niners left there families behind
warships covered with iron, proved to be a vast improvement over wooden ships.
minie ball
A minie ball is a bullet with a hollow base. The bullet expands upon firing to fit the grooves in the barrel. Rifles with minie balls can shoot farther.
Clara Barton
Worked for the government when the civil war began. She also organized a relief agency to help with the war effort. She also made the food for soldiers in the camp and tended to the wounded. At Antietam she held the a doctor's operating table steady as cannon shells burst all around them. The doctor called her the angle of the battlefield. After the war she founded the red cross.
Boston Massacre
The british soldiers were sick of being picked on one day a fight broke out and 5 colonists died.
is a professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country
Andrew Jackson
He was a former military hero from Tennessee. He won the most popular votes
Zebulon Pike
HIs expedition was to find out more about the Arkansas and Red Rivers. Him and the men that went with him traveled along the Arkansas River until they spotted the Rocky Mountains. They were arrested around the Spanish territory and were not able to continue their expedition.
Industrial Revolution
factory tools replaced hand tools, the large scale manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work
they sided with the rebels
importing or exporting goods illegally
ran along the Appalachian Mountains through the far western part of the other regions
They were settlers of Spanish or Mexican decent. Most of them lived on huge cattle ranches.
It meant the people stopped work to demand better conditions. Women went on strike when the mill owners raised there rent of company-owned boarding houses where they lived. 1,500 women went on strike.
it contradicted the law of the constitutional
They were Northern Democrats who favored peace in the South. (copperheads are a poisonous snake that strikes without warning)
John Brown
He was a extreme abolitionist. He and seven other men went to the cabins of proslavery neighbors and murdered five people. Then he captured the arsenal at Haper's ferry. The North thought he was hero but the south was horrified of the South's reaction. Later he was charged for treason, and murder and was hung.
are people of the spanish heritage who consider Texas their home
Battle of the Thames
Harrison defeated the British in October. This victory put a end to the threat British had to the Northwest and also claimed the life of Tecumseh who lost his life fighting for the British.
They were soldiers on horseback to spy on McClellan.
Pinckney's Treaty
Agreement with Spain that gave Americans certain rights. It also gave them the right to store goods at the port of New Orleans without paying custom dutie
popular sovereignty
is the system where the residents vote to decide an issue
The North offered $300 bounties or cash payments, to men who volunteered to serve.
Missouri Conpromise
It happened in 1820 and it kept the balance of power in the Senate between the slave states and the free states.
Underground Railroad
It was actually an aboveground series of escape routes from the South to the North. On these routes, runaway slaves traveled on foot, wagons, boats, and trains.
heads of the departments that help the president lead the nation
is a negative opinion that is not based on facts.
John Locke
an english philosopher that believed we had the rights to free things life, liberty, and property
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
She was part of the American delegation that attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London 1840. They were not allowed to say anything though.
labor union
is a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions
to withdraw from the union
Great Awakening
revived the religion in the colonies
a meeting to reawaken religious faith
Siege of Vicksburg
General Grant defeated the confederate troops here on July 4, 1863. His troops surrounded the city and prevented the delivery of food and supplies. Eventually the Confederates ran out of food and ate mules, dogs, and even rats. Finally after a month and a half they surrendered. The great part about this battle was that it was the Confederates last stronghold on the river.
civil disobedience
Thoreau believed in the importance of individual conscience, he urged people to not to obey laws the considered unjust. Instead of protesting with violence, they should peacefully refuse to obey those laws.
Battle of Gettysburg
The fighting raged for three days. On the rocky hills and fields around Gettysburg, 90,000 Union troops, under the command of General George Meade, clashed with 75,000 Confederates. It was the turning point of the war. Lee ordered General George Pickett to mount a direct attack on the middle of the Union line. It was a deadly mistake. The Union army failed to finish the Confederates off but they rejoiced in their victory. The North lost 23,000 men and the South lost 28,000 men.
california gold rush
When people heard of Marshall's discovery people from all of California raced to the American River. This was called the California gold rush
Juan Seguin
led a band of 25 Tejanos in support of revolt.
Francis Scott Key
He was detained on a British ship and was a Washington lawyer. He watched the all night battle and at dawn when he saw the flag still flying he expressed his pride in what became the U.S National Anthem.
manifest destiny
It suggested the expansion was not only good but bound to happen even if it meant pushing Mexicans and Native Americans out of the way.
Appalachian Mountains
stretched from Canada south to Alabama
John Marshall
Adams appointed him as chief justice of the supreme court, he was a 45- year old federalist
Both sides passed this law, they were also known as a draft. These laws required men to serve in the military.
Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion in 1794 by farmers in western Pennsylvania against the tax on whiskey
Fugitive Slave Act
It was the law that helped slave holders recapture runaway slaves. It required Northerners to help recapture the runaway slaves and they did not agree with slavery. They would get arrested for not returning a fugitive or knowing about where a fugitive was.
Paul Revere
a Boston silversmith and a second messenger
beyond the fall line and means foot of the mountains
Lowell Mills
textile mills in a village, employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boarding houses.
Battle of the Alamo
The battle between the Texans and the Mexicans. The Mexicans won in victory. All but five texans were killed.
a person who learned trade from an experienced craftsman
was the right to vote
Lincoln Douglas debate
Lincoln said that slavery was a moral, a social and a political wrong. He did not suggest abolishing slavery where it already existed. He argued that only slavery should not be expanded. Lincoln thought that it was the national governments role to prevent the expansion of slavery. Douglas on the other hand thought that popular sovereignty was the best way to address the issue because it was the most democratic method to do.
Jefferson Davis
he was the president of the Confederacy
income tax
it was a tax on earnings
is a gun with a grooved barrel that causes a bullet to spin through the air
Thirteenth Amendment
In January 1865, Lincoln urged Congress o try again to end slavery. This time it was known as the Thirteenth Amendment passed. By the ned of the year 27 states including eight from the south had ratified the amendment. From that point on Slavery was banned from the United States.
He tried to find a way to teach the cherokees to talk on paper like the white man. In 1821 he reached his goal. He invented a writing system for the cherokee language without ever learning to read or write in any other language. He created 86 characters that standed for symbols.
a plant that yields a deep blue die
people who take extreme political positions
Oregon Trail
It was the trail that led from Independence Missouri to the Oregon Territory.
committee of correspondence
Samuel Adams wanted to make sure people not to forget the the cause of liberty.
cash crop
crops raised to be sold for money
Townshend Acts
The king told parliament that he had a way to revenue the colonies. In 1767 Parliament passed his plan and was known as the Townshed acts.
triangular trade
was a trading route that stopped in three different places
Harriet Tubman
She was one of the most famous conductors. A person who led runaways to freedom.
Border States
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were slave states that bordered states in which slavery was illegal
Lewis and Clark Expedition
This is the expedition that Lewis and Clark went on. They were to select and oversee a volunteer force, which they called the Corps of Discovery.
Nearly all of the immigrants traveled on this. It was the cheapest deck on the ship.
Erie Canal
created a water route between New York CIty and Buffalo, New York. It also opened the upper Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region o settlement and trade.
was a force of armed civilians pledged to defend their community
Minute Men
hey were one third of the militia and were trained to be ready to act at a minutes warning
Conestoga wagon
the Germans built them to carry their produce to town
Albany Plan of Union
the first formal proposal to unite the colonies
Benjamin Franklin
famous american enlightenment figure who's intelligence affected the colonies
Embargo Act of 1807
A act passed be Congress in December. This act stated that American Ships could no longer allowed to sail to the foreign ports. It also closed American ports to British Ships.
Samuel F.B. Morse
first demonstrated his telegraph, This machine sent long and short pulses of electricity along a wire
to swear into office
They settled in Utah. They were members of the of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints. They lived in close communities, worked hard, shared their goods, and prospered.
Navigation Acts
had four major provisions designed to ensure that England made money from it's colonies trade
Native-born Americans who wanted to eliminate foreign influence.
temperance movement
It was led by churches and it was a campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol.
armed forces prevent the transportation of goods or people into or out of an area
William Tecumseh Sherman
He pushed through the Deep SOuth to Atlanta and the Atlantic coast. He set out a march to the sea, cutting a path of destruction up to 60 miles wide and 300 miles long through Georgia. Sherman waged total war: a what not only against the enemy , but against everything that supports the enemy. His troops tore up railroads, destroyed crops, and burned and looted towns. Sherman's triumph in Atlanta was important to Lincoln. Sherman's success made the Northerners see victory.
they supported the British
men hired by the planters to watch and over direct the slaves
Thomas Jefferson
He was a person on the Declaration of Independence committee which also included Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston
santa anna
He was the Mexican president.
Samuel Slater
he sailed to the Untied States under a false name. It was illegal for textile workers to leave the country because they wanted know other country to copy its machines for making thread and cloth
First Continental Congress
delegates voted to ban all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts were repealed
mountain men
They were daring fur trappers and explorers. They opened the west by discovering the best trails through the Rockies.
states' rights
Theory that says the states had the right to judge when the federal government had passed an unconstitutional law
Declaration of Independence
Richard Henry Lee of Virginia a key resolution. It called the colonies free and independent states and declared that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is ...totally dissolved. The congress assigned a committee to draft the declaration of independence.
Gadsden Purchase
This was land that the Mexican sold for 10 million. It happened in 1853.
judicial review
says that the supreme court has the final say in interpreting the constitution
fall line
were the river prevents large boats from moving farther up river
Fort Sumter
in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, but they were running out of supplies. It was the begging of the civil war
England's chief law making body
Robert Fulton
invented a steamboat that could move against the current or a strong wind
It was the movement to end slavery, began in the late 17,00's
War Hawk
They were Britain Westerners that called for war and were also known as this.
Treaty of Paris
when Britain claimed all the land east of the Mississippi River
Battle of Shiloh
It was in Tennessee turned into the fiercest fighting the Civil War has yet seen.
Monroe Doctrine
In December 1823 this was said that the Americans were closed to further colonization. He also warned the European efforts to reestablish colonies that would be considered dangerous to our peace and safety. It showed that the Untied States saw itself as a world power and protector of Latin America.
Treaty of Ghent
This was the treaty that ended the war of 1812, but because of the slow mail was signed two weeks earlier.
Dorothea Dix
She was a a reformer from Boston, was teaching Sunday school at a women's jail. She discovered that some women who were locked in cold, filthy cells, simply because they were mentally ill. She knew that the conditions had to change. She traveled all over the United States and she started 32 new hospitals.
Nat Turner
On August 21 1831 Turner followed and killed 55 white men and children. When Turner was caught he and tried and hanged.
is a feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward your country
intolerable Acts
was a series of laws to punish the Massachusetts colony and to serve as a warning to other colonies
was the bloodiest day in all of American history.
Battle of Yorktown
the American and French troops bombarded Yorktown with the cannon fire, turning its buildings to rubble
a Shawnee chief vowed to stop the loss of Native American land. He believed that the reason Native Americans continued to lose their land was because thy were separated into many different tribes.
John Peter Zenger
helped pass a new right, the freedom of press, by printing an article that criticized the governor
interchangeable parts
parts that are exactly the alike
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
In this treaty, Mexico recognized that Texas was part of the Untied States, and the Rio grande was the border between the nations. It also included the Mexican cession. This area included parts of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. The United States agreed to pay Mexico $25 million. The United States would also pay the $3.25 million of claims to U.S citizens. FInally it also promised to protect 800,000 Mexicans living in Texas and the Mexican Cession.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Because this was passed it got rid of the Missouri Compromise by allowing people to vote fro slavery in territories where the Missouri Compromise had banned it. The southerners supported this bill even the bill angered opponents of slavery. The bill was passed.
John Paul Jones
he was an officer that one the most famous battle
Proclamation of 1763
it forbid colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Clash between native tribes and the federal army
Many Europeans were influenced by this type of art. It stressed the Individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion. It drew inspiration from nature.
54th Massachusetts Regiment
One of the first African-American regiments organized in the North.
farmers brought there grain here to be crushed into produce flour or meal
tax on imported foreign goods
George Washington
He was a commander of the Continental Army.
Santa Fe Trail
It was the trail that led from Missouri to Santa Fe.
sam houston
He was the only man at the meeting with the military experience, was placed in command of the Texas army.
people who leave the country
Confederate States of America
The states that had seceded met in Montgomery Alabama and formed this group.
brigham young
He was the next Mormon leader. He moved his people out of the Untie States. His destination was Utah.
not taking sides in a conflict
stephen austin
He was the son of a bankrupt miner. He was to fulfill his fathers dream. His father died and left him a letter to do so. He really wanted to be a lawyer not a colonizer
Ulysses S. Grant
He was the victorious Union general in the West. In civilian life, he failed at many things. But Grant has a simple strategy of war. "Find out where your enemy is, get at him as soon as you can, strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
On July 21, 1861, Union forces commanded by General Irvin McDowell clashed with confederate forces headed by General Puerre Beaureguard near a little creek called Bull Run north of Manassas. In the North, this battle came to be known as the First Battle of Bull Run.
Fredrick Douglas
He spoke from his own experience of slavery. In his speech he announced that he was a thief. He stole a head, limbs, this was from his master. Because of his courage and talent at public speaking won his a career as a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti- Slavery Society.
James Monroe
He won the presidency in 1816 with a large majority of electoral votes.
Oliver Hazard Perry
Oliver was a experienced officer and took charge of the infant fleet. The fleet was being built by the Americans and it was on the Shores of Lake Erie.
She was married to a French Trapper and was a 17 year old. She had a baby and was asked to go along on the Lewis and Clark expedition. She was a Shoshone new the language, skills, knowledge of geography which was a great value to Lewis and Clark.
They were religious folk songs. Spirituals often contained coded messages about a planned escape of an owner's unexpected return.
factory system
brought many workers and machines together under one roof
Alien and Sedition Acts
Acts that targeted aliens and newspapers
Dred Scott
He sued for his freedom, but since he was not a citizen was not able to sue in the U.S. Courts.
james marshall
He was a carpenter sent for by Sutter. He was sent to build a sawmill on the nearby American River. He was walking in the river one day and saw something shiny. It ended up being gold.
Eli Whitney
invented a machine for cleaning cotton in 1793, it was called the cotton gin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She published the book Uncle Tom's Cabin. She also was a abolitionist.
William Travis
He was the head of a small force. This force included famous frontiersmen, Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Was a novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It expressed the moral issues of slavery in a highley dramatic way. It tells about the central plot tells of Tom's life under three owners. It was a popular book but the south thought that it falsely criticized the south and slavery.
emphasize reason in science as the paths to knowledge
John Adams
a lawyer and cousin of Samuel Adams, defended them in court
is loyalty to the interests of your own region or section of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Louisiana Purchase
This purchase was held on April 30, 1803, it was sold for 15 million about cent's a acre. This purchase also doubled the size of the United States.
Appomattox Court House
Was where Wilmer Mclean moved after the first major battle of the war was fought on his property. When they needed a meeting place they stopped the first person they say and it happened to be him. THis is where the war ended in Wilmar Mclean's parlor.
Samuel Adams
A leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty
William Clark
He was a Lieutenant and was a friend of Lewis. He was in the militia and knew how to build forts, draw maps, and lead expeditions. He was six feet tall and had a muscular build.
Robert E. Lee
He was a talented military leader. He left the United States Army and joined the confederacy. Although he Lee opposed slavery and secession but he explained that he could not raise his hand against my birthplace, my home, my children. He eventually became the commanding general of the general of the Army of Northern Virginia.
Federal Judiciary Act
the act that created a court system and divided authority between the state and federal courts
Indian Removal Act
Congress passed it in 1830. The act called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require Native Americans to relocate west
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued it and it freed all slaves in the Confederate Territory.
Trail of Tears
The hash journey of the Cherokees from their homeland to Indian Territory.
land speculator
They were people bought huge areas of land. They bought land and sold it when the value went up.
a person who settles in a new country
kidnapping of American soldiers to work on British Ships.
john sutter
He was a Swiss immigrant. He went to the Mexican governor in 1838. He wanted the governor to grant him 50,000 acres in the unsettled Sacramento Valley. He built a fort on his land and dreamed of creating his own personal empire based on agriculture.
a variety of people in the population
Meriwether Lewis
Jefferson chose him to lead the expedition. He was well qualified, a expert hunter. Jefferson trained him in geography, mineralogy, and astronomy.
Seneca Falls convention
Elizabeth Stanton was part of this. It was for women's rights in Seneca Falls, New York, on July 19 and 20, 1848.
cotton gin
The cotton gin made the cotton-cleaning far more efficient. With this machine, one worker could now clean as much as 50 pounds a day.
Boston Tea Party
The colonists unloaded tea and let it rot on the docks and they also blocked tea ships from landing.
French and Indian War
decided which what nation would control the northern and eastern part of north america
Horace Mann
He was the head of the board of education of the Untied States. He argued that education creates or develops new treasures- treasures never before possessed or dreamed of by any one.
Battles of Saratoga
The Burgoyne decided to surrender and the conflicts that led to the surrender is the battles of Saratoga. Some of the conflicts were the mercenaries began to fall back, the army had to move slowly through the rain and just fell down and slept in there wet uniforms.

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