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World History Final

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Brest-Litovsk Treaty
Treaty signed with Lenin and Germany; Lenin gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces
Bills of Rights
10 amendments that guaranteed freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly
Battle of Stalingrad
Germans attacked their and the Soviets launched back; Germans surrendered because of the harsh winter cold
Central Powers
during World War I; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire
Jean-Paul Marat
new leader that emerged; editor of a radical paper against King Louis' rule
Maximilian Robespierre
one of important French revolutionary leaders; member of National Convention; dominated the Committee of Public safety after George Danton; very powerful and obsessed with ridding France of corrupt elements; killed by guillotine
D-Day
Allied forces under Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on Normandy beaches and attacked; Germany was slow to attack back
Nuremburg Laws
excluded Jews from German citizenship' given Stars of David and carried identification cards
Galileo Galilei
taught mathematics; the church ordered him to abandon his ideas
Verdun
In France; 700 thousand people lost their lives their
Treaty of Versailles
June 28th 1919; punished Germany for the war; limited size of Germany's army, prohibited importing and making of weapons, and they had to pay $33 billion to allies over 30 years; required establishing a League of Nations
Triple Alliance
before World War I; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Potsdam Conference
Truman demanded free elections throughout Eastern Europe; at the end, few people favored this demand
Armistice
a truce, and agreement to end fighting
Napoleons Continental System
system to stop British goods form reaching Europe; failed
Declaration of Man and the Citizens
Adopted by the National Assembly; proclaimed freedom and natural, imprescriptible rights of man
1st Battle of Marne
battle between France and Germany a short distance from Paris
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Came to power in Germany; forces Bismark to resign; opened Germany up for two-front war
Articles of Confederation
the American nations first constitution' approved in 1781; did little to centralize the governemtn
Textile Industry
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Paris Peace Conference
to workout treaty between allies and Germany; Germany was not invited; U.s, Great Britain, France and Italy attended
Truman Doctrine
stated that the United States would provide money to countries threatened by Communist expansion
Trench Warfare
The trenches that both Germany and France dug for shelter during the First Battle of the Marne
John Locke
influenced the enlightenment; argued that everyone was born with a blank mind
Ptolemy
greatest astronomer of antiquity; created the Ptolemaic system which places the universe at the center
Directory
5 directors elected by the Council of Elders; the government of which the revolution was under
Triple Entente
before World War I: Great Britain, France, Russia
Jacobins
a large network of political groups throughout France; two important ones were Girondins and the Mountaind
Autsria's Ultimatum
given to Serbia;
Date World War I started
1914
Flying Shuttle
Made weaving faster
Black Hand
terrorist organization of Serbia; wanted Bosnia free of Austria-Hungary
Otto Von Bismark
German chansler; united Germany; made a triple alliance with Austria-Hungary & Italy; made alliance with Russia
National Assembly
the third estate brought together by the outrage of King Louis XVI
Munich Conference
Conference where British, French, German, and Italian representatives met with Hitlers and decided to appease his demands
Adolf Hitler
Leader of Germany and Nazi's during WWII; leader and responsible for violent acts against Jews; gained much more territory for Germany after World War I
Maria Theresa
became ruler of Austria after her dad died; was not open to reforms but wanted to centralize Austrian Empire; made an alliance with Great Britain
Eastern Front
Russia side of Germany; planned to hold of Russian troops at their border
Policy of Containment
a plan to keep something within its existing geographical boundaries and prevent further aggressive moves
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
a philosopher; presented the social contract
scientific method
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
Kristallnacht
A more violent phase of anti-Jewish activity; "night of shattered glass"; Nazis burned synagogues and Jewish businesses; Jews sent to concentration camps
Committee of Public Safety
committee of 12 protecting the people of France
"100 Days"
the 100 days of Napoleon's second term as ruler
Date World War II started
1939
Winston Churchill
Called Italy the "soft underbelly" of Europe; Leader during World War II
1st Estate
clergy; owned 10% of land in France; paid no taxes; contributed 2% of income
Civil Code/Napoleonic Code
preserved gains of revolution by recognizing equality of citizens
14 Points
Wilson's way of preventing war; 1. end secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas 3. free trade 4. reduce armies & navies 5. adjusting colonial claims 6-13. creating new colonies and borders 14. Establish international organization to peacefully workout problems
George Clemenceau
leader of France during World War I; attended the Paris Peace Conference
Western Front
France side of Germany; Germany planned to go through Belgian and attack France by surrounding most of French Army
Water Powered Loom
Invented buy Edmund Cartwright;efficient for workers to make factoires by rivers using water
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania joined in a formal military alliance
Woodrow Wilson
President of United States during World War I; suggested the "14 Points"; attended the Paris Peace Conference
Date World War II ended
1945
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancient regime
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austria-Hungary; Assassinated on June 28th 1914
Montesquieu
came from French royalty; identified with three types of government
Reign of Terror
the motion that the National Convention and Committee of Public safety created; get rid of corrupt elemnts and killed with guillotine
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democrat; President of U.S. at time of World War II
Date World War I ended
1918
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; powers agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked; Many European countries signed along with U.S. and Canada
Holocaust
The Nazis attempt to finally exterminate the Jews; led by Hitler
Allies
during World War I; Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy
separation of powers
brought about by Montesquieu; has three different branches of government, legislative, executive, and judicial
Battle of the Bulge
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social contract
an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
Federal system
splitting the government into three branches (judicial, legislative, executive)
Isaac Newton
became a professor of mathematics and came up with the universal law of gravitation
Tennis Court Oath
the National Assembly gathers on Tennis court after not being able to meet
Marshall Plan
a European Recovery Program; it followed the Truman Doctrine; designed to re-build the prosperity and stability of war-torn Europe; U.S. would donate funds to relinquish Europe
Yalta Conference
the Big Three powers met again in southern Russia
Date Treaty of Versailles
1919
Steam Engine
start of faster and hefty locomotives; transported goods faster
Consulate
government in France established after the overthrow of the Directory
Weimar Republic
a German democratic state; plagued by depression and serious economic problems
Battle of Midway Island
turning point of the war in Asia; U.S. planes destroyed Japanese aircrafts
Allies Powers
World War II; Great Britain, United States, Soviet Union
Axis Powers
World War II; Japan, Italy, Germany
Francis beacon
and english philosopher and came up with the scientific method
Storming the Bastille
more than 800 Parisans gathered demanding weapons and gunpowder; the commander refused to open the gates; a battle broke out inside the Bastille
David Lloyd George
Leader of Great Britain during World War I; attended the Paris Peace Conference
Voltaire
greatest figure of Enlightenment; well known for strong belief in religious toleration' championed deism
Benito Mussolini
known for his Fascist movement; ruled Italy during World War II
Constitution
created a federal system within it; the Constitution had to ratified by states before approved
3rd Estate
bourgeoisie, city-workers, and peasants; 97% of population; paid 1/2 their income to state
Second Battle of Marne
the second advance to finally reach Paris; stopped short; Germans were fought off by French, Moroccan, and American troops
Fredrick the Great
dedicated ruler of Prussia; enlarged Prussian army, abolished use of torture except in treason and murder cases; granted limited speech and press
appeasement
satisfying demands of dissatisfied countries in effort to prevent war
Louis XVI
King of France; cause financial collapse; wanted to raise new taxes; tried to use force to stop outrage of 3rd estate
Schlieffen Plan
Germanys way to fight two-front war; go through Belgian to attack France
Catherine the Great
Ruled Russia; spread the boundaries of Russia during her rule
Battle of Britain
German air-force launched a major offensive on Britain; Britain were able to rebuild air-force and Hitler postponed attack indefinitely
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
two cities where Truman (president of U.S. after Roosevelt died) dropped bombs; thousands of people died; Japanese surrendered
2nd Estate
2% of population; owned 25-30% of land; paid no taxes; had public jobs
Grand Army
Napoleons army of over 600,000 men who invaded Russia
Gavrilo Princip
member of black hand; killed Franz Ferdinand
Georges Danton
the newly appointed minister of justice; led the sans-culottes;dominated the Committee of Public Safety
Hitler's "Final Solution"
Nazis New Order to exterminate the Jews
Nicholas Copernicus
Mathematician who believed in the heliocentric conception of the universe

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