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Poli Sci 270 Test #2


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The tendency partially evident in the current political system for individuals to give their primary political loyalty to seemingly ever smaller ethnonational groups and to seek territory over which the group can exercise sovereignty. Micronationalism involves the fragmentation of political identities.
Extension beyond the borders of a single country; applies to a political movement, issue, organization, or other phenomena.
Transnational political identity
A focus of political identification that an individual has and uses to define his or her views and loyalties, which transcends the traditional boundaries of the nation and territorial state and causes the individual to define themselves politically in reference to a larger, no territorial unit, such as a religion.
The concept that the welfare of the collective must be valued over any individual rights or liberties.
Industrial Revolution
The development of mechanical and industrial production of goods that began in Great Britain in the mid-1700s and then spread through Europe and North America.
Macrolevel Theocracy
At the broadest possible level. For example, system-level analysis is macrolevel analysis, while human level analysis is microlevel analysis.
A type of restrictive governmental system where people are under the rule of an individual, such as a director or king, or a group, such as a party or military junta.
Procedural Democracy
A form of democracy that is defined by whether or not particular procedures are followed, such as free and fair elections or following a set of laws or a constitution.
Substantive Democracy
A form of democracy that is defined by whether qualities of democracy, such as equality, justice, or self-rule, are evident.
Diplomatic Recognition
Having a political entity declares its independence and form statehood, while other countries diplomatically recognize it.
A political actor that has sovereignty and a number of characteristics, including territory, population, organization, government, and recognition.
State Sovereignty
Political independence in a state from any higher authority and theoretical equality.
A political system that is organized, governed, and defined by the idea of the divine right of kings, or the notion that because a person is born into royalty, he or she is meant to rule.
National Interest
Reflecting the interest and relative power of competing groups inside the state.
International cooperation in specific areas such as communications, trade, travel, health, or environmental protection activity. Often symbolized by the specialized agencies, such as the World Health Organization, associated with the United Nations.
The top-down approach to solving world problems.
Regime (international organization)
International entities, or sets of principles, rules, norms, and decision-making procedures agreed to by a group of states to guide their behavior in particular issue areas.
Supranational Organizations
An organization that is founded and operates, at least in part, on the idea that international organizations can or should have authority higher than individual states and that those states should be subordinate to the supranational organization.
League of Nations
The first, true general international organization. It existed between the end of WWI and the beginning of WWII and was the immediate predecessor of the United Nations.
Maastricht Treaty
The most significant agreement in the recent history of the European union (EU). The Maastricht Treaty was signed by leaders of the EU’s 12-member-countries in December 1991 and outlines steps toward further political-economic integration.
Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
International/transnational actors that are composed of member-countries.
European Union
The Western European regional organization established in 1983 when the Maastricht Treaty went into effect. The EU encompasses the still legally existing European Community (EC). When three still legally existing regional organizations formed in the 1950s: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
The totality of a country’s international capabilities. Power is based on multiple resources, which alone or in concert allow one country to have its interests prevail in the international system. Power is especially important in enabling one state to achieve its goals when it clashes with the goals and wills of other international actors.
Adversarial Diplomacy
A negotiation situation where two or more countries’ interests clash, but when there is little or no chance of armed conflict.
Bilateral Diplomacy
Negotiations between two countries or actors.
Coalition Diplomacy
A negotiation situation where a number of countries have similar interests, which are often in opposition to the interests of one or more other countries.
Multilateral diplomacy
Negotiations among three or more countries.
Coercive Diplomacy
The use of threats or force as a diplomatic tactic (Iraq, Cuba)
Summit Meetings
High-level meetings for diplomatic negotiations between national political leaders.
Relative power
Power measured in comparison with the power of other international actors.
Persuasive Power
“Soft power” such as moral authority or technological excellence.
Open Diplomacy
The public conduct of negotiations and the publication of agreements.
Parliamentary Diplomacy
Debate and voting in international organizations to settle diplomatic issues.
Zero-sum game
A contest in which gains by one player can only be achieved by equal losses for another players. A non-zero-sum game is a situation in which one or more players, even all players, can gain without offsetting losses for any other player or players.
High-level Diplomacy
Has advantages. Verbal and written statements by heads of government that is noted seriously in other capitals. (Violence between Israelis and Palestinians)
Low-level Diplomacy
Communication at a low level, avoiding overreaction and maintaining flexibility. (Taiwan crisis of 2000)

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