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20th Century American History-part 1


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What is history?
The memory of things said and done
Who coined the term "industrial revolution"?
Arnold Toynbee
Industrial Revolution
All of the changes that occured as:
powered machines were replaced with
powered machines
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Great Britain
What was the first steam powered machine?
Water pump
What was the first steam powered machine used in?
Mining industry
Who invented the first steam powered machine?
James Watt
What happened as a result of the first steam powered machine being invented?
Factory system replaced the "putting out" or "domestic" system.
What are the "putting out" and "domestic" systems?
Systems of production
What is a factory?
A building that contains both machines and workers
What happened as a result of the factory systems replacing the domestic system?
What is urbanization?
Growth of cities
Why did so much urbanization occur?
Farmers wanted the jobs in factories.
What happened as a result of urbanization?
Changes in living conditions

Changes in working conditions

Changes in transporation
What were some of the changes in living conditions?
Space (shared apartments)

Sanitation problems

Massive spread of disease

What were some of the changes in working conditions?
Couldn't choose their own hours

No vacations

Overworking - 16 hr/day, 6 day/week = 96 hr/week


No minimum wage

No unemployment comensation

No safety regulations
What were the two biggest parts of the change in transportation?
Steam locomotive

Steam boat
Who was the inventor of the steam locomotive?
Richard Trevithick
What were the benefits of the steam locomotive?
Transport more people, faster, cheaper.

30 people, 500 tons, 8 mph
Who was the inventor of the steam boat?
Robert Fulton
What was the name of the first steam boat?
"The Clermont"
What were the three main facets of progressivism?
1. The belief that recognized problems in America

2. The belief that things could get better.

3. Action was necessary to make things better
What were people called who wanted to "make things better"?
Muckrakers consisted primarily of...
Who was a primary muckraker?
Lincoln Stephens
What did Lincoln Stephens do?
Traveled from city to city to study politics
What magazine did Lincoln Stephens write for?
What conclusion did Lincoln Stephens come to?
Politics as a whole is extremely corrupt
What book compiled Stephens' articles from McClure's?
"The Shame of the Cities"
The Social Gospel Reformers consisted mostly of...
What was the name of the book that revolutionized America in the late 1800s?
What Would Jesus Do? In His Steps
Who wrote the book that revolutionized America in the late 1890s?
Charles Sheldon
What was the main organization that was a part of the Social Gospel Reformers?
The Salvation Army
Who founded the Salvation Army?
William Booth
Where was the Salvation Army Founded?
What were the places that supported immigrants and helped learn the language/culture etc. called?
Settlement houses
What was one of the most prominant settlement houses and where was it located?
"Hull House"
Who founded the "Hull House"
Jane Addams
Why did most immigrants come?
To make more money and go back home
How were settlement houses funded?
Charitable contributions
What was the Women's Suffrage Movement?
Movement that pleaded for the Women's right to vote
Right to vote
Why did people think it was wrong for women to vote?
1. Women's sphere of influence is in the home

2. Women are to pure to be exposed to the dirty world of politics
Why did people think it was right for women to vote?
1. Our constitution stands for equality

2. Women's purity may help "clean up" the dirty world of politics
What was the women's suffrage association called?
National America Woman Suffrage Association
Who formed the NAWSA?
Anna Shaw

Carrie Catt
What gave women the right to vote?
19th Amendment in 1920
Who first created communism?
Karl Marx
Where was Karl Marx from?
Great Britain
What is capitalism?
System of using money to make money
What do communists believe that the root of our problems is?
What were the two groups that Marx defined?

What were the two books written by Marx?
"The Communist Manifesto"

"Das Kapital"
What did the Proletariat represent?
Common working people
What did the Bourgeosie represent?
Owners, elite etc
According to Marx, history is a series of what?
Class struggles
What was the class struggle represented in the 1900s?
Between the Proletariat and the Bourgeosie
Why did Marx think capitalism was ethically wrong?
1. The people who work the most get paid the least

2. The people who work the least get paid the most
What happens to the classes as time goes on?
More and more are added to the Proletariat and less and less to the Bourgeosie
Why are there changes in the numbers of people in the Proletariat and the Bourgeosie?
1. Big businesses ran smaller ones out of business

2. Big businesses bought smaller ones out of business
What would eventually happen to change things, according to Marx?
Revolution of the Proletariat
What did Marx think the masses would try to gain control of?

What would be truly created once Revolution of the Proletariat was completed?
What is Communism?
A society without:
Individual owndership of property
Class distinctions
What must be addressed before society can progress?
Inherent wrongness
Why isn't the Solviet Union a communist nation?
People in the communist party have special priviledges
What is closely related to Communism?
Who are socialists?
People who want businesses to be owned/controlled by the government
What would the government see to in Socialism?
Profits aren't made, businesses just break even
How could socialism be accomplished?
1. Pass laws
2. Revolution
What was the Temperance movement?
A movement to ban alcohol
What did the people supporting the Temperance movement think it would be?
A Panacea
What is a Panacea?
What were the benefits of banning alcohol?
People would have more money

Crime would be reduced

Homeless would be fewer

Child/spouse abuse would decrease
What Amendment banned alcohol? and When was it?
18th Amendment in 1918
What was the time that alcohol was banned called?
Why didn't the prohibition/temperance movement work?
People didn't stop drinking, but got alcohol from illegal sources.
How long was alcohol banned?
15 years
When was alcohol made legal after the prohibition?
What Amendment repealed the ban on alcohol?
The 21st
What was the point of "Political reformers"?
"Clean up" politics
What were the three actions taken to clean up politics?
1. Secret Ballot

2. Recall Elections

3. Primary Elections
What was the alternative to a secret ballot?
Publicly voting
What's the problem with publicly voting?
You could lose your job if you didn't vote for the person your boss wanted in office
What is a recall?
It's when the people pull someone from office due to bad job performance.
What is the alternative to Primary Elections?
A dozen rich guys picking who the candidates are
What was one of America's most important elections?
The election of 1912.
What did the Republicans have the most trouble with in the election of 1912?
Deciding which candidate should run
Who were the Republican choices in the Primaries of 1912?
William Taft

Teddy Roosevelt
Who was the democratic choice in the election of 1912?
Woodrow Wilson
Why did William Taft run?
He was the sitting president
Why did Roosevelt challange Taft?
He didn't like the way he did things
What position did Woodrow Wilson hold before running for president?
Governer of New Jersey
Which Republican won the primaries?
William Taft
What did Roosevelt do when he didn't win the primaries?
Made his own party
What was Roosevelt's party officially called?
"Progressive Party"
What did Roosevelt's political party become known as?
"Bull Moose Party"
Who won the election of 1912?
Woodrow Wilson
Why was the election of 1912 won by the man it was won by?
Republican votes were split between Taft and Roosevelt
What did not exist until Wilson became president?
Federal Income Tax
What was one of the first things Wilson did in his presidency?
Asked Congress to pass the Underwood-Simmons Tarrif
What did the Underwood-Simmons Tariff seek to do?
Lower the tariff
What is a tariff?
Tax on imported goods
What is Amanda's Last name?
Was the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Passed/
What was the result of the Underwood-Simmons Tariff being passed?
government didn't collect as much money, so had to start collecting income tax.
What allowed the government to have income tax and when was it passed?
The 16th Amendment, in 1913.
What was the piviotal event that led up to the beginnings of WWI?
Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
What was the importance of Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
He was heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
Who was on the throan of Austria-Hungary when Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assasinated?
Francis Joseph
Where was Archduke Francis Ferdinand shot?
How were Francis Ferdinand and Francis Joseph related?
Francis Joseph was Francis Ferdinand's uncle.
Where is Sarajevo?
What country had Sarajevo fallen under control of?
What country wanted Bosnia to be under its control?
How was the Archduke Francis Ferdinand killed?
A bomb was throne at his vehicle, and it got lost and a terrorist shot him.
What terrorist group killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
The Black Hand
Who was the terrorist that shot Archduke Francis Ferdinand?
Gavrilo Princip
Who was the terrorist group that shot the Archduke funded by?
How did Austria-Hungary respond to the killing of the Archduke?
Consulted Germany and then declared war on Serbia
Who was the leader of Germany at the time the Archduke was shot?
Kaiser Wilhelm II
How did Germany respond to Austria-Hungary?
They handed them a "blank check"
What was Germany's military status?
One of the strongest countries on earth
What did Serbia do when Austria-Hungary declared war?
Turned to Russia for help
What was Russia's history of helping its allies?
Had refused 2 times in the past 20 years
What was Russia's response to Serbia?
Agreed to help and began moblizing troops
How did Germany respond to Russia?
Told them to stop mobilizing and stop supporting Serbia
What did Germany DO in response to Russia?
Declared war on it
Who was Russia's ally?
What did Germany say to France?
Stop mobilizing
What did Germany do in response to France?
Declared war
What was Germany's plan?
The Schlieffen Plan
What two things would the Schlieffen Plan do?
1. Knock France out immediately

2. Take on Russia
What was the main problem with the Schlieffen Plan?
Germany would have to send troops through Belgium.
What was Belgium's response to Germany?
Refused to let them send troops through
Why did Belgium refuse to allow Germany through?
They wanted to remain neutral
What did Germany do when Belgium wouldn't allow troops through?
Attacked it and defeated with a few hours
What was Great Britain's response to Germany because of their attack on Belgium?
Declared war on Germany
What was America's longstanding policy when it came to European wars?
Who began Isolationism?
George Washington
When was Isolationism first introduced (in what context)?
"Washington's Farewell Address"
How long did America stay out of the war?
The first 3 years
Why was it difficult for the US to stay neutral (4 reasons) ?
1. People naturally choose sides (ethnic background, etc.)

2. Respect for Great Britian (we wanted to have the same political values as GB)

3. Economic ties with the Allies (Wouldn't be able to pay us back if conquered)

4. Germany began using Submarine warfare
Who are considered to be "The Allies"?
Great Britain, France, Russia
Who had the World's greatest Navy?
Great Britain
What did Germany do with their Submarine warfare?
Sank all ships as they approached Great Britain
What ship was sunk that had hundreds of civilians on it?
What was the positive side of the sinking of the Lusitania?
It made the Germans look really bad, so they stopped using Submarine warfare
What were the three main groups of people in the US as the war began?
1. Pacifists (Stay out of the war at all costs)

2. People who believed in preparedness (prepare, but stay out for now)

3. Interventionists: America should go to war
Who ran in the election of 1916?
Woodrow Wilson
Charls Even Hughes
What group was Charles Evan Hughes a part of?
What group was Woodrow Wilson a part of (war)?
What was the slogan that helped Wilson to win the 1916 election?
"He kept us out of war!"
How much later after winning the election did Wilson ask Congress to declare war?
5 months
What 3 things happened within the 5 months of Wilson being re-elected?
1. The Zimmerman Telegram was recepted

2. Germans: Unrestricted submarine warfare

3. Tremendous economic ties
Who sent the Zimmerman Telegram?
Arthur Zimmerman, foreign minister of Germany
Who intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram?
Great Britian
What did the Zimmerman telegram say and to whom was it sent?
It was sent to Mexico and it said that if the US enters the war, Mexico should attack the US.
What was the American response to the Zimmerman Telegram?
It made them very angry at Germany
What did the Germans do shortly after Wilson was re-elected?
Declared Unrestricted submarine warfare
What did the Germans say about their unrestricted submarine warfare?
Any ship going to any Allied Country will be sunk without warning
What happened in 1917?
The war came to a stalemate
What was a big part of the stalemate and how long did it last?
Both sides in Western Europe had dug trenches, and didn't do much of anything.

3 years.
What was Germany's main point in sinking ships?
Deplete the supplies of the Allies
What were the tremendous economic ties?
US had sold millions of dollars worth of supplies to the Allies, but they didn't have cash to pay for it
What happened on April 6, 1917?
Congress declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary
Who from the US declared war on Austria-Hungary?
What is one of the first steps that has to be taking after the US declares war?
The government has to "sell the war" to the people
What were the four ways the Government tried to sell the war to people?
1. Idealistic Goals

2. Helped set up social groups

3. Government passed laws

4. Propaganda
What were the three Idealistic goals that the government used to "sell the war" to the people?
1. War to end all wars

2. War to make the world safe for Democracy

3. Peace without victory
What were the two main social groups that the US setup?
1. Boy Spies of America

2. Girl Spies of America
What were the two laws that the Government passed in attempt to "sell the war" to the people?
1. Sedition Act

2. Espionage Act
What was the Sedition Act?
Act that made it illegal to criticize the government
What was the Espionage Act?
Act that made it illegal to mail seditious material.
Who was the postmaster general at the time of the Espionage Act?
Albert Sydney
How was the Espionage Act carried out?
Searching people's mail
What was the main group involved in Propaganda?
Committee of Public Information
Who was the founder of the Committee of Public Information?
George Creel
What did the Committee of Public Information do?
Put out ads in nearly every newspaper, posters, pamphlets etc.
What was the cost for WWI?
$32 Billion
What was the annual federal budget?
$1 Billion
What did the government do to pay for the war?
1. Raised Taxes

2. Took loans from the people
What form were the loans from the people in?
War bonds
How did the government pay off war bonds?
Raising Taxes
What group helped suppor the American Economy in WWI?
War Industries Board
Who was the founder of the War Industries Board?
Bernard Baruch
What did the War Industries Board do?
Attempted to control American industry to ensure America had the supplies needed to fight
How did the War Industries Board get companies to help?
What regulations did the owners of factories have to follow if they agreed to help the War Industries Board?
...what type many
...specific price
Why did factory owners want to voluneer to help the War Industries Board?
The price was often 25% more than the market.
Who moved in the Great Migration?
Where did people move from and to in the Great Migration?
Blacks moved from Southern US to Northern US
Why did the Great Migration take place?
Explain the term Push-Pull
Push: Blacks were being pushed out of the south due to lack of jobs and racism
Pull: Blacks were being pulled to the North due to good jobs in factories.
What act pushed Women into the workforce?
Selective Service Act
What act issued a draft?
Selective Service Act
Define Boom Time
Good time for the American Economy
What two war fronts existed in 1917-18?
Western Europe (France and Great Britain Vs. Germany)

Eastern Europe (Russia Vs. Germany)
What was the problem for Germany fighting on two fronts?
They had to split up their men
What revolution in Russia helped to bring out the end of the war?
Bolshevik Revolution
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Communists who believed that a revolution must take place to throw over the government, etc.
Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?
Vladimir Lenin
What were the three goals of the Bolsheviks?
1. Land
2. Bread
3. Peace
Why did the Bolsheviks want land?
Less than 5% of the people owned more than 95% of the land.
Why didn't the Bolsheviks have food?
All food was being shipped to the soldiers
What was the peace treaty that Germany signed with Russia called?
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
What was Germany's benefit of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Only had to fight on one front
What was the race at the very end of WWI?
Germany moved its men from Eastern to Western Europe (Russia to France) While the US moved its men to Western Europe.
In the Summer of 1918, Germans launched...
...their last offensive.
What is an offensive?
What was the last offensive launched by the Germans called?
2nd Battle of the Marne
What's the Marne?
River outside of Paris
What happened at the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
The Allies defeated Germany
Who were the Allies led by in the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
General Ferdinand Foch
Why did the Allies win the 2nd Battle of the Marne?
US troops had arrived just in time.
When did WWI come to an end?
November 11, 1918 at 11 am
What day do we celebrate the ending of WWI?
Veterans Day
What was the next step after WWI was over?
Peace Settlement
What big decision needed to be made?
"What are we going to do with Germany?"
Who worked on the Peace Settlement? (group)
The Big Three
Who were the countries represented by the Big Three?

Great Britain

Who did the Big Three comprise of?
President Woodrow Wilson (USA)

Prime minister David Lloyd George (Great Britain)

Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau (France)
What was the problem with the peace settlement?
Each had different goals
How many points did Wilson have in his plan for the Peace Settlement?
What were 3 of the 14 points Wilson had in his plan for peace?
1. Self-Determination (each group of people should govern itself)

2. League of Nations (International peace-keeping organization)

3. No secret treaties (breeds suspicion and mistrust)
What was David Lloyd George's plan for peace?
What are reparations?
Payments of restitution
What was Georges Clemenceau's plan for peace (3)?
1. Reparations

2. Eliminate Germany's military

3. Buffer Zone
Where did France want to create a buffer zone?
Between France and Germany
How would France create a buffer zone?
Make a separate country between Germany and France?
What would the country between Germany and France be called?
Why was the country France wanted to create called Rhineland?
Named after the Rhine River.
What was the 1st Battle of the Marne associated with?
The Schlieffen plan
What are Mr. Nikolas's sons names?
Alexander and Michael
Why does evil exist in the world?
Free Will


To develop moral character

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