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The Virginia Plan
representation according to population of the state
"Rule of Law"
a political-legal system which attempts to protect the rights of citizens from arbitrary and abusive use of government power
Under rule of law, those who make the laws are...
subject to those laws, but they can create exemptions for themselves under the law.
The authority of the government has ___________ over time.
The powers of Congress under the Articles of Confederation were ______ than they are now in the Constitution.
Vertical Separation of Powers
between federal, state, county, and local governments
Horizontal Separation of Powers
relationship between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
The constitutional Articles allocating power to the different branches of government is the least detailed regarding ________.
judicial powers (Article III)
Under the Articles of Confederation, there were several currencies because...
Congress and the states both had the power to coin money
1/3 of the Senate goes up for election every...
2 years
Under the Articles of Confederation, there was a ____ central government.
Amending the Constitution
need passage by a two-thirds margin in both the House and the Senate
Texas originally operated under the _______ Constitution.
The power to declare war was given to _____ because it was enumerated in the Constitution.
The Necessary and Proper Clause and the Supremacy Clause...
expand the power of the national government.
The Bill of Rights
applies to the states through the due process clause of the 14th amendment.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
- involved a dispute between about who should get a license for waterways between the states
- addressed the scope of congressional authority under the Commerce Clause
State and local laws are the primary source of legal authority except in the area of...
patent and trademark law.
Confederal forms of government...
retain all of their sovereignty and only delegate specific tasks to a central government.
Article One...
covers the legislative branch.
Article two...
is the executive branch.
Article three...
covers the judicial branch.
Alexis de Tocqueville
- political theorist
- believed the Puritans were the people who would decisively affect political culture in the United States
Tyranny to the Anti-Federalists was...
fear of an aristocracy
Tyranny to the Federalists was...
rule by the passions of the majority.
Contestation and Participation are...
dimensions of democracy according to Huntington
public good
a service or thing which benefits society, but which individuals do not or cannot provide
Interest groups pursue:
when they are frustrated with the action or lack of action in Congress

1) litigation strategies
2) class action suits
3) legal remedies
4) civil suits

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