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pols us govt


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federalists and anti-federalists

supporters of the Constitution, who favored a strong central government

 advocates of states’ rights who opposed the Constitution


"who gets what, when and how" - lasswell

a process of determining how power and resources are distributed


a system or organization for exercising authority over a body of people


directives that specify how resources will be distributed or what procedures govern collective activity

capitalist economies

all the means that are used to produce material resources are privately owned, and decisions about production and distribution are left to indiiduals operating through the free-market process.

rely on the market 

political culture and values

the shared values and beliefs about the nature of the political world that give people a common language in which to discuss and debate political ideas

democracy, freedom, and equality 

types of immigration
refugees, visitors, foreign government officials, students, international representatives, temporary workers, members of foreign media, and exchange visitors, illegal imagrints
to acquire citizenship
the right by blood, the right by soil, or by the process of naturalization
differences between authoritarian and democratic governments

authoritarian: states give ultimate power to the state rather than to the people to decide how they ought to live their lives.

democracy: puts power in the hands of the people 

shay's rebellion
a grass-roots uprising (1787) by armed Massachusetts farmers protesting foreclosures
weaknesses of the articles of confederation
did not provide a central govt. and without that they were unable to provide economic and political stability
Virginia plan
a proposal at the Constitutional Convention that congressional representation be based on population, thus favoring the large states
separation of powers
the institutional arrangement that assigns judicial, executive, and legislative powers to different persons or groups, thereby limiting the powers of each
checks and balances
the principle that allows each branch of government to exercise some form of control over the others

groups of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community
a political system in which power is divided between the central and regional units
great compromise
the constitutional solution to congressional representation: equal votes in the Senate, votes by population in the House
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
dual federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments were responsible for separate policy areas
cooperative federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments share responsibility for most domestic policy areas
categorical grants
federal funds provided for a specific purpose, restricted by detailed instructions, regulations, and compliance standards
block grants
federal funds provided for a broad purpose, unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations
necessary and proper clause
constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
types of federal funding to states
categorical and block grants
supremacy clause
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the supreme law of the land

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