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Supreme Court Cases


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Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Judicial Review
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
Georgia legislature issued extensive land grants to Yazoo Land Company; afterwards, it was considered corrupt, so there was a legislative session that repealed the action Court ruled that the original contract was valid and could not be broken
(1819) Dartmouth College v. Woodward
ruled that even though charter was granted by the king, it was still a contract and thus could not be changed without the consent of both parties
(1819) McCulloch v. Maryland
state of MD tried to levy a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States (to protect the competitive position of state banks) ruled against state, b/c state had no right to control an agency of the federal gov't
(1824) Gibbons v. Ogden
NY state had granted monopoly to Ogden of Hudson River. Gibbons obtained a permit from Congress to operate steamboat there Ogden sued, and state ruled in his favor Marshall ruled that it was interstate commerce and could not be regulated by a state (only Congress could) - the monopoly was then voided
(1831) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Court refused to hear case, which the Cherokees brought forward, b/c GA had abolished their tribal legislature and courts (said that because the tribe was a "foreign nation, the decision should be made by the Supreme Court) Marshall said they really were not foreign nations (they just had special status)
(1832) Worcester v.Georgia
GA state gov't said any US citizen who wanted to enter Cherokee territory had to obtain permission from the governor GA law was overturned, b/c the federal gov't had the constitutionally mandated role of regulating trade with the tribes Jackson said of Marshall "John Marshall has made his decision. Now let him enforce it"
(1842) Prigg v. Pennsylvania
Court ruled that states did not have to enforce the return of fugitive slaves Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (MD) - Pro-South
(1856) Dred Scott v. Sanford
Dred Scott, (slave from Missouri), had been taken to Illinois (a free state) by his owner for several years, so he sued for his freedom ruled that he, as a slave, was not a slave, and could not sue in court
(1877) Munn v. Illinois
upheld Granger Laws that regulated railroads
(1886) Wabash Case (Wabash, St.Louis, and Pacific Railroad Co. v. Illinois)
ruled one of the Granger laws in Illinois was unconstitutional because it tried to control interstate commerce, which was a power of Congress only restricted state regulation of commerce
(1895) United States v. E.C. Knight Co.
Congress charged that a single trust controlled 98% of refined sugar manufacturing in the US, but Court rejected case because trust was involved in manufacturing, NOT interstate commerce (which was what Congress could control), so, trust was not illegal weakened Sherman Antitrust Act
(1896) Plessy v. Ferguson
ruled that segregation was allowed, as long as the facilities were "separate but equal"
(1944) Korematsu v. United States
Roosevelt's 1942 order that Issei and Nisei be relocated to concentration camps was challenged Court upheld it (exec order 9066)
(1950) Sweatt v. Painter
ruled that blacks must be allowed to attend integrated law schools in OK and TX
(1954) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall challenge decision from Plessy v. Ferguson Court ruled that the separate educational facilities were not equal 1955 - said states must "integrate with great speed" **(note: when Court announces Brown II decision, Montgomery bus boycotts began)
(1957) Roth v. United States
greatly limited the authority of local governments to curb pornography
(1962) Engel v. Vitale
ruled that prayers in public schools were unconstitutional
(1962) Baker v. Carr
required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so that all citizens votes would have equal weight
(1966) Miranda v. Arizona
confirmed the obligation of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights
(1972) Furman v. Georgia
overturned existing capital punishment statutes and established strict new guidelines for such laws in the future
(1973) Roe v. Wade
based on new theory of constitutional "right to privacy" (first recognized in Grizwold v. Connecticut) invalidated all laws prohibiting abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy
(1842) Commonwealth v. Hunt
Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that unions and strikes were legal
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
illegally seized evidence can not be used in court
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
state courts provide consel for poor defendants
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
police to inform an arrested person of right to remain silent
Yates v. United States (1957)
free speech unless clear and preasent danger.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
a state can not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults
Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
The Point: SC could review a state court's decision involving any of the powers of the federal gv't.
Martin v. Hunter's Lease (1816)
SC had jurisdiction over state courts in casing involving constituional rights
Bush v. Gore (2000)
No Florida recount. George W. Bush is president.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
College admission can not be based on race alone.
US Term Limits Inc. v. Thorton
staes could not limit the tenure of federal lawmakers without a constitutional ammendment
(1898) Williams v. Mississippi
There is no discrimination in the state's requirements for voters to pass a literacy test and pay poll taxes, as these were applied to all voters.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens.
(1866) Ex Parte Milligan
Suspension of habeas corpus is unconstitutional when civilian courts are still operating; the Constitution provided for suspension of habeas corpus only if civilian courts are actually forced closed.
(1869) Texas v. White
Texas (and hence the rest of the Confederacy) never left the Union during the Civil War. Further, a state cannot unilaterally secede from the United States.
(1895) In re Debs
The court ruled that the government had a right to regulate interstate commerce and ensure the operations of the Postal Service, along with a responsibility to "ensure the general welfare of the public."
(1918) Hammer v. Dagenhart
Congress has no power under the Commerce Clause to regulate labor conditions
Insular Cases
Essentially, the Supreme Court said that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.
DeLima v. Bidwell
Upon ratification of the Treaty of Paris, Puerto Rico was not a foreign country for purposes of the tariff laws of the United States, which required payment of duties on goods moving into the United States from a foreign country.
(1908) Muller v. Oregon
Oregon's limit on the working hours of women was constitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment, because it was justified by the strong state interest in protecting women's health. Supreme Court of Oregon affirmed.
(1905) Lockner v. NY
New York's regulation of the working hours of bakers was not a justifiable restriction of the right to contract freely under the 14th Amendment's guarantee of liberty.
(1911) Standard Oil Co. v. US
The Standard Oil Company conspired to restrain the trade and commerce in petroleum, and to monopolize the commerce in petroleum, in violation of the Sherman Act, and was split into many smaller companies. Angered Roosevelt
(1911) US v. American Tobacco Co.
The combination in this case is one in restraint of trade and an attempt to monopolize the business of tobacco in interstate commerce within the prohibitions of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Authorized "reasonable restraints of trade.
(1922) Baily v. Drexel Furniture
Congress improperly penalized employers for using child labor.
(1923) Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Minimum wage law for women violated the due process right to contract freely
(1935) Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States
Invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause.
(1941) US v. Darby Lumber Co.
The Fair Labor Standards Act was a constitutional exercise of Congressional power under the Commerce Clause (Regulate Employment Conditions such as min wage, max work hours, child labor laws).
(1936) United States v. Butler
The Agricultural Adjustment Act is an unconstitutional exercise of power.
(1944) Smith v. Albright
Unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to Blacks as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.
(1951) Dennis et al v. US
Upheld the Smith Act of 1940 which made it illegal to advocate or teach the overthrow of the government by force ...
(1980) Harris v. McRae
States that participated in Medicaid were not required to fund medically necessary abortions for which federal reimbursement was unavailable as a result of the Hyde Amendment ( provision barring the use of federal funds to pay for abortions).
(1989) Webster v. Reproductive Services
MO law forbidding an institution from receiving state funds from performing abortions was upheld.
(1992) Planned Parenhood v. Casey
A Pennsylvania law that required spousal notification prior to obtaining an abortion was invalid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it created an undue burden on married women seeking an abortion. Requirements for parental consent, informed consent, and 24-hour waiting period were constitutionally valid regulations.
(1971) Swann v. Charlotte-Meckenburg Board of Ed.
Supported froced busing to achieve racial balance in schools.
(1974) Miliken v. Bradley
No busin across district lines. Schools didn't have to combine to ahcieve racial balance.

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