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French Revolution
1790s, 2nd major democratic revolution. US did nothing to aid either side. French overthrew king, many unsuccessful democratic governments till Napoleon took over as a dictator in 1799.
Supporters of the Constitution
Federalists: wealthy, opposed anarchy. (Hamilton, Jay, Madison)
Opponents of the Constitution
Antifederalists: commoners afraid of strong central gov/being taken advantage of. (Patrick Henry, Sam Adams).
Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
Worked against ratification of Constitution in Virginia.
Sam Adams
Opposed Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added.
George Mason, Bill of Rights
Opposed Constitution because it didn't protect individual rights. Brought about the Bill of Rights.
The Federalist Papers
Essays written by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison explaining the importance of a strong central government. Federalist #10 said that a large democracy would stop anarchy and factions.
Bill of Rights
Adopted 1791, the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution.
President George Washington
Established many presidential traditions. Against political parties, tried to achieve political balance by appointing adversaries to government positions. VP Adams had little say in his administration.
Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and appoint judges.
Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
Federalist, supported industry and strong central government. Created the National Bank, paid off US's war debt through tariffs and the whiskey excise tax.
Sec. of State Jefferson
D.R., opposed Hamilton. Resigned because Washington almost always sided with Hamilton.
Hamilton's Program
Designed to pay off war debt and stabilize economy. He thought the US could become a leading commercial power. Created the National Bank, increased tariffs, taxed whiskey. Insisted that the federal gov take on state debts.
Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause.
Section 8 of Article I lists powers specifically granted to Congress, also includes the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." Those powers are known as Congress' 'implied' powers, and the clause is known as the 'elastic' clause because it can be stretched to include nearly any power.
Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution
Loose: the gov can do anything which the Constitution doesn't specifically forbid. Strict: the government can only do what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
Location of the capitol
S upset that the fed gov was assuming state debts (mostly from North), so as a compromise, the capitol was chosen in the South.
3/5s Compromise
In the Constitution, slaves would be counted as 3/5s a person for both taxes and representation.
Whiskey Rebellion
1794, Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against Hamilton's whiskey tax. Army quickly put down the rebellion, showing the power of the Constitution as compared to the Articles of Confederation.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned against political parties and foreign alliances.
Federalists and Democratic Republicans
Federalists: strong central gov, strong army, industry, loose interpretation, National Bank, protective tariffs, GB (Hailton, Adams) Democratic Republicans: weak central gov, state/individual rights, strict interpretation, state banks, agrarian society, France (Jefferson, Madison)
Alien and Sedition Acts
4 Federalist laws, 1798. Naturalization Act- 14 years to become a citizen Alien Act- President could arrest/deport dangerous aliens. Alien Enemies Act- President could arrest/deport citizens of countries at war w/ US. 1-3 were response to XYZ affair, aimed at French/Irish 'subversive' immigrants. Sedition Act: meant to stifle D.R.s.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to Alien and Sedition Acts, declared that states could nullify federal laws (the Doctrine of Nullification).
Election of 1800
DRs Jefferson and Burr beat Adams in a tie- went into House of Reps, took a long series of ties to choose Jefferson. Led to 12th amendment.
12th Amendment
Brought by the Jefferson/Burr tie in 1800, stated that VP and Prez nominees would be on the same ticket.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election: first non-Federalist president.
2nd Great Awakening
1801, Methodist/Baptist religious revival. Stressed salvation through good deeds, tolerance for all Protestants. Attracted women, African Americans, and Indians. Was especially big in the West.
French Alliance of 1778
France had helped the US in the Revolution, and the US agreed to help France if it ever needed it. The US didn't help during the French Revolution (took till WWI for the US to fulfill this agreement).

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