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Ron Wright Test 2


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Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 Life as States, not colonies Written by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Paine
Biggest loser ever, wrote "Common Sense"
"Common Sense"
Written in 1776, it rallied people for the war and American independence
Paine's literature "Common Sense" did what for George III's image
Paine attacked the king directly for the states' mistreatment (his statue was melted into bullets)
What was Washington's battle tactic usually?
Survive to fight another day! Cut and run through uncivilized land to escape
Ship of the Line - Britain
Britain had 150 of them, 50 guns on each, and used them to control the US coast
Could continental Congress tax?
NO, paper money was worthless, used as toilet paper
Why were the armies in Philadelphia and New York starving?
crops sold to British for gold
British Forces: Regulars, "Hessians," and Loyalists
Reg-common soldiers (indians), Hess-1/3 of Brit army (mercenaries), Loy-"tories" 20% of americans
American Forces: Continentals, state militias, "Patriots"
cont-trained to fight like regulars (1/7 Af Am), state-very undisciplined,Patri- 40% of colonists
William Franklin
illegitimate son of B.Franklin, loyal to the king
Sunshine Patriots, 40% of colonists
Northern Campaigns
"Turning Point" Saratoga
Southern Campaigns
Yorktown, Howe takes um to NJ, left little militia pockets, WA takes Trenton on Dec 25, huge victory
Superstitious "tories" thought this was their year
John Bergoyne 1777
Under Lord Howe, wants to Separate New England from the colonies
Howe 1777
wanted to sail to Philadelphia to attack there, succeeds, beds Loring for a while
Germain 1777
Wanted to separate New England from colonies AND attack Philadelphia
Burgoyne leads S, Iroquois leading, pillaging, they ditch before arrival, and he meets up w/ Horatio Gates (colonial militia) and surrenders. Am. think they can win now
1778 Treaty w/ France
Recognizes the colonies as independent, France sent army and naval forces, France declares war on Britain
Henry Clinton
took over for Howe
Henry Hamilton & Nickname
pays Western chiefs for taken prisoners and scalps, the "Hair Buyer"
Washington's reaction to the "Hair Buyer"
4k of his best fighters sent to annihilate the Iroquois
Lord Cornwallis
went to Savanna, Georgia w/ 8k soldiers, and captured Charleston in 1780
Cornwallis vs Horatio Gates, Gates ran while the battle was lost
Nathaniel Greene and nickname
Rhode Island "Fighting Quaker," best field commander in Am. Revolution, disowned by his family
S. Carolina did what for Nathaniel Greene?
Bought him the Mulberry Plantation after his family disowned him
Battle of the Capes
Lasted all day, 45 ships, only 1 sunk. Graves-Brit. Naval Commander who retreated from Cornwallis P/U
got command of French and American forces at age 21
Cut off Cornwallis sea retreat before the Battle of the Capes
Battle on a hill
Am and Fr barrage w/ artillery, battery commander destroying his own house where Cornwallis was
1783 Treaty of Paris
Independence, Land from Appalachian to Mississippi given, NO canadian independence
Feb 1782, Parliament of Britain...
Cut the money supply for the fight w/ the colonies
Articles of Confederation
First Constitution, less ntn'l gv't is better
Popular Sovereignty
People gave power to the states which gave power to the ntn'l gv't
Northwest Ordinance
60,000 "white men" -> statehood, slavery banned, 5k men own 50+ acres -> territory
NW Ordinance Failure
Foreign occupation of Western territories
Shay's rebellion
lower gun taxes
1787 Constitution
Fed Gv't power shared, and had taxation, separation of powers/checks and balances
Great Compromise
debate lg vs. sml states
Virginia Plan
representation in congress is equal to the state population
NJ plan
representation in congress is equal to state population
House of reps led by...
Senate led by...
Ammendment Process
3/4's of state legislatures' vote
The constitution of 1787 was ratified by ___ of 13 states
Virginia and NY wanted ___ in the constitution
spelled out protection of liberties
"The Bill of Rights"
10th- reserved powers to states and people
Rhode Island ratifies constitution in 1790 under threat of being...
a separate country
1st president and his political party
George Washington, NO party
Washington put together a group of advisers now know as
the cabinet
Department of War run by
Henry Knox
T/F In 1790 the Gv't created the department of education
NOT, it was done in the 1900's
T/F By 1800 we're the most powerful country
NOT, we're super poor
Department of State went to...
Thomas Jefferson
Department of Treasury went to...
Alexander Hamilton, richest man, born in poverty, he's on the $10
Leads to civil war, and has brought down every republic known
Washington's Factionalism solution
consensus on several levels leading to national-would never work, but leads to political parties
Hamilton's Gv't desires
Stronger ntn'l, wanted an oligarchy, broad constitution interpretation, high taxes
Jefferson's Gv't desires
Weak Ntn'l gv't, strict interpretation, low taxes, state rights
Whiskey Rebellion caused by
Whiskey Tax!
Whiskey Rebellion led by
W PA farmers
Whiskey Rebellion
farmers wouldn't pay taxes so Washington fed-ized 10,000 armed militia and was going to march
DEMOCRAT Republicans, formed by, newspaper, also known as
Jefferson, and James Madison, National Gazette, Jefferstonian
Federalist party, formed by
Hamilton, and John Adams
1776 American Revolution
Government Revamp
French Revolution
Overthrow for a republic, no titles or status, economy collapsed, counter-revolutionaries jailed
1792 became what year in the french revolution?
yr 1, no basis on Christ's birth
the equalizer of classes, no hanging or axemen
Party's opinions on French Revolution
Fed Opposed, DR for
French Revolutionary War causes war btwn france and...
ALL of Europe
What caused England to start seizing Am ships in the Caribbean?
French opened sugar islands for trade during Rev.
Neutral Rights
can trade w/ nations at war, "freedom of Seas"
England backs indians to attack frontier during French Revolution, we retaliate w/
Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne-goes to Fallen Timbers and massacres indians->peace treaty and retreat
John Jay
went to neg. w/ British to get out, respect Neutral rights, pay for our property, and open trade --- ha ha yea right
John Jay's negotiations result in only
Britain pulling forces from the West
Spain gets nervous about our Treaties and..
came about w/ Pinckney's Treaty
Pinckney's Treaty
Changed Border, Peace Agreement w/ Spain, Americans get New Orleans
2nd President
John Adams, Federalist
The French start raiding our ships on the seas b/c of...
Treaty w/ Britain
B/c the french start taking our ships, we...
rescind treaty w/ france, and federalists spend money to increase the army and create a real navy
Navy was to be composed of...
23 frigates, each had 44 guns
Congress built what to protect against sea invasion?
Forts at port cities
Undeclared Naval War
US has no ships, pres instituted privateers for the US to capture merchants in Cuba
Election "Revolution" of 1800
Jefferson won, peaceful transfer of power occurred between parties
3rd President
Jefferson, DR
Jeffersonian Philosophy
Gv't should be limited and people get left alone
Jefferson did what during his presidency
reduced the gv't, lowered taxes, reduced army and navy (Mosquito Fleet)
Mosquito Fleet
composed of Jefferson Gun Boats, 125 of them, 1 gun on each
Zevelon Pike
goes to map rivers through Spanish land, gets caught, and almost killed
Lewis & Clark
hoped to find a passage through rocky mountains W
wanted to visit mom across the mountains, for protection, she'll show Lewis and Clark the way
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon becomes "the I" took the crown from the pope, wanted to create a US of Europe-this means war
Embargo Act, cause, what it was, effect
England and France began attacking us again, we boycotted, the economy went into a deep depression
4th President
James Madison, DR
James Madison
More of a follower than a leader, his wife Dolley had more backbone
John C. Calhoun
Philosopher of the South
Daniel Webster
Great Orator - NE
Henry Clay
Great Compromiser - W
War of 1812 fought to...
defend Neutral rights, fight "impressment", for War hawks that wanted canada
War of 1812
5 frigates attacked british commerce and won all of 12 battles, Mosquito fleet descimated
Napoleonic War's End
500,000 men march to moscow in dead winter, only 10,000 survive
End of Napoleon war causes britain to request
a peace treaty, no apology, keep impressment, no fishing rights, canada gets head of mississippi, and country for the indians
Battle of Bladensburg
Massive retreat, Madison takes off, Dolley saves valuables
1814 Brit attack on DC
Hurricane hit where the british were
Star Spangled Banner
written by francis scott key while Fort McHenry defended baltimore
Battle of New Orleans
42nd batta"lions" led by Packenham "sheep", Mowed down by andrew jackson's Tenn Volunteers
Ghent Treaty
status quo ante bellum (as it was before)
Effects of Ghent Treaty
US got respect, we got Florida, Adams-Onis Treaty $5mil for FL

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