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USMLE Supreme


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What is the major function of the D1 receptor?
relax renal vascular smooth muscle
What is the major function of the D2 receptor?
modulate transmitter release, esp. in brain
What is the major function of the H1 receptor (4)?
-produce mucous
-contract bronchioles
What is the major function of the H2 receptor (4)?
increase gastric acid secretion
What is the major function of the a1 receptor?
increase vascular smooth muscle contraction
What is the major function of the a2 receptor (2)?
-decrease sympathetic outflow
-decrease insulin release
What is the major function of the M1 receptor?
What is the major function of the B1 receptor (5)?
increase HR,
-inc. contractility,
-inc. renin release,
-inc. lipolysis,
-inc. aq. Humor formation
What is the major function of the M2 receptor?
decrease heart rate
Draw the brachial plexus

Nerve(s) associated with longus colli and scalene muscles
Nerve roots C5,6,7,8
What is the major function of the B2 receptor (3)?
vasodilation, bronchodilation, inc. glucagon release
What is the major function of the M3 receptor?
increase exocrine gland secretions
Nerve roots associated with median nerve
What is the major function of the V1 receptor?
increase vascular smooth muscle contraction
Nerve roots associated with ulnar nerve
Nerve roots associated with axillary nerve
Nerve roots associated with radial nerve
What is the major function of the V2 receptor?
increase water permeability and reabsorption in the renal collecting tubules
Nerve roots associated with medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Nerve roots associated with subclavius
What second messenger system does Gi work through?
adenylcyclase reduces cAMP levels and protein kinase A is reduced
Nerve roots associated with medial brachial cutaneous nerve
What second messenger system does Gq work through?
phospholipase C--> I
PIP2 to IP3 + DAG
DAG inc. protein kinase C
IP3 inc. Intracellular Ca2+
Nerve roots associated with lateral pectoral nerve
Nerve roots associated with 1st intercostal nerve
What second messenger system does Gs work through?
adenylcyclase converts ATP to cAMP to phosphorylate protein kinase A
Nerve roots associated with medial pectoral nerve
Nerve roots associated with musculocutaneous nerve
Nerve roots associated with suprascapular nerve
Nerve roots associated with upper and lower subscapular nerve
Nerve roots associated with dorsal scapular nerve
Nerve roots and muscle associated with long thoracic nerve
innervates serratus anterior muscle
Nerve roots associated with thoracodorsal nerve
Autosomal recessive diseases (12)
-Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
-infant polycystic kidney disease
-Sickle cell anemia
-Glycogen storage diseases: Von Gierke's, Pompe's, Cori's, McArdle's
-Mucopolysaccharidoses (except Hunter's): Hurler's
-lysosomal storage dz / Sphingolipidoses (except Fabry's): Niemann Pick, Tay Sachs /Sandhoff's, Gaucher's, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe's.
_____are associated with low folic acid intake during pregnancy.
Neural tube defects
90% of adult polycystic kidney disease cases are due to mutation in _____(gene and chromosome).
APKD1 (on chromosome 16)
95% of Down's syndrome cases are due to what?
meiotic nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes (4% due to Robertsonian translocation and 1% due to Down mosaicism)
A patent ductus arteriosus is maintained by what 2 things?
PGE synthesis +
low oxygen tension
Abnormalities associated with Marfan's syndrome:
-long extremities, -hyperextendible joints,
-long tapering fingers/toes

-cystic medial necrosis of aorta,
-aortic incompetence,
-aortic dissection,
-aortic aneurysm,
-floppy mitral valve

Ocular: subluxation of lenses
Adult polycystic kidney disease is associated with what other diseases or disorders?
polycystic liver disease
mitral valve prolapse

developmental retardation microcephaly
thin upper lip
indistinct philtrum
flat midface
short palpabral fissures

This child at risk for what other proble
Baby with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
At risk for
-limb dislocation
-heart fistulas and
-lung fistulas
Becker's muscular dystrophy is due to____.
dystrophin gene mutations (not deletions) Becker's is less severe.
Besides pulmonary infections, what are some other consequences of CF?
infertility in males
malabsorption leading to fat-soluable vitamin deficiencies (A,D,E,K)
Causes of female pseudohermaphroditism:
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
or exogenous administration of androgens during pregnancy
excessive and inappropriate exposure to androgenic steroids during early gestation
Characteristic murmur with a patent ductus arteriosus.
continuous, 'machine-like'
Adult polycystic kidney disease:
Signs and Sx's
Signs- bilateral massive enlargement of kidneys due to multiple large cysts
Sx's- pain, hematuria, HTN, and progressive renal failure
Characteristics of Duchenne's MD:
onset before age 5

weakness begins in pelvic girdle progresses superiorly

pseudohypertrophied calf
(fibrofatty replacement of muscle)

cardiac myopathy

Gower's maneuver (arms to get up)
Characteristics of female pseudohermaphroditism:
ovaries present but external genitalia are virilized or ambiguous
Characteristics of Fragile X syndrome:

macro-orchidism (enlarged testes),

long face with a large jaw,

large everted ears,

and autism
Characteristics of Hereditary Spherocytosis:
-spheroid erythrocytes
-hemolytic anemia
-increased MCHC
-splenectomy is curative
Characteristics of male pseudohermaphroditism:
testes present, but external genitalia are female or ambiguous.
Children may do this to increase venous return with R-to-L shunt.
Compare the cholesterol levels of heterozygores and homozygotes with familial hyperchlosterolemia:
Heterozygotes (1 : 500) cholest. levels around 300mg/dL Homozygotes (very rare) cholest. levels over 700 mg/dL.
Complications associated with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia:
severe atherosclerotic disease early in life

tendon xanthomas (classically in the Achilles tendon)

Myocardial Infarction before age 20
Congenital heart defects are often due to which infection?

Cri-du-chat syndrome results from a congenital deletion on which chromosome?
short arm of chromosome 5 46 XX or XY, 5p-

5 yr- Cry when you start preschool
Define Meningocele:
meninges herniate through spinal canal defect picture on p. 229
Define Meningomyelocele:
meninges and spinal cord herniate through spinal canal defect picture on p.229
Define pseudohermaphroditism:
disagreement between the phenotypic (external genitalia) and gonadal (testes vs. ovaries) sex.
Define Spina bifida occulta:
failure of bony spinal canal to close, but no structural herniation. (usually seen at lower vertebral levels)
Describe a true hermaphrodite:
46 XX or 47 XXY both ovary and testicular tissue present; ambiguous genitalia
Describe Eisenmenger's syndrome:
Uncorrected VSD, ASD, or PDA leads to progressive pulm. HTN. As pulm. resistance increases, the shunt changes from L to R to R to L, which causes late cyanosis (clubbing and polycythemia).
Does coarctation of the aorta affect males or females most commonly?
3:1 males to females
Down's syndrome is associated with increased or decreased levels of AFP?

AFP goes DOWN, with Down's Syndrome
what change in amniotic fluid AFP is evidence of a neural tube defect.
Elevated AFP
Explain the adult type of coarctation of the aorta and give some associated symptoms.
aortic stenosis distal to ductus arteriosus (postductal)

aDult is Distal to Ductus

notching of the ribs,
hypertension in upper extremities,
weak pulses in lower extermities (check femoral pulse)
Explain the infantile type of coarctation of the aorta. What is it commonly associated with?
aortic stenosis proximal to insertion of ductus arteriosus (preductal)
'INantile, IN close to the heart.'
associated with Turner's syndrome
Explain the pathogenesis of eisenmeinger's syndrome
In fetal period, shunt is R to L (normal). In neonatal period, lung resistance decreases and shunt becomes L to R with subsequent RV hypertrophy and failure (abnormal).
Explain the transposition of the great vessels.
Aorta leaves RV (anterior) and pulmonaryt trunk leaves LV (posterior) this leads to separation of systemic and pulmonary circulations.
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis features:
Colon becomes covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty


F= five (deletion on chromosome 5)

A= autosomal dominant inheritance

P= positively will get colon cancer (100% without resection)
Findings in Von Recklinghausen's disease:
-cafe-au-lait spots,
-neural tumors,
-Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas),
-skeletal disorders (scoliosis), and
-increased tumor susceptibility
Findings of Cri-du-chat syndrome:
-severe Mental Retardation,
-high pitched crying/mewing
-cardiac abnormalities
Findings with Huntington's disease:
progressive dementia
choreiform movements
caudate atrophy
dec. GABA and Ach
list type of L-to-R shunt Frequency:
Gender identity is based on what two things?
1. external genitalia 2. sex of upbringing
Genetic anticipation of Fragile X syndrome may be shown by what?
Triplet repeat (CGG)n
Highest risk of development of fetal alcohol syndrome at __ to ___ weeks.
3 to 8
How does CF present in infancy?
Failure to thrive
How is CF diagnosed?
increased concentration of Cl- ions in sweat test
How is Muscular dystrophy diagnosed?
muscle biopsy
increased serum CPK
Huntington's disease manifests between the ages of :
20 and 50
Incidence and characteristics and Turner's syndrome:
1 in 3000 births
-short stature,
-ovarian dysgenesis,
-webbed neck,
-coarction of the aorta
-shield chest
-streak ovaries
Incidence and characteristics of double Y males:
1 in 1000 births
-phenotypically normal,
-very tall, severe acne,
-antisocial behavior(1-2%)
Incidence and characteristics of Edward's syndrome:

1 in 8000 births

Trisomy 18

clenched hands (flexion of fingers)
low-set ears,
prominent occiput
congenital heart disease,
rocker bottom feet,
severe MR,
Death within 1 year of birth.
Incidence and characteristics of Klinefelter's syndrome:
1 in 850 births testicular atrophy, eunuchoid body shape, tall, long extremities, gynecomastia, female hair distribution
Incidence and characteristics of Patau's syndrome:

1 in 6000 births

trisomy 13

cleft lip/palate,
abnormal forebrain structures,
congenital heart disease
severe MR

Death within 1 year of birth.
What is the genetic problem in Marfan's?
fibrillin gene mutation
Mechanism of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may be :
inhibition of cell migration
Most common form of male pseudohermaphroditism is ____.
testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity) results from a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (X linked recessive); blind-end vagina
Name 3 examples of L-to-R shunts. (late cyanosis) 'blue kids'
1. VSD (ventricular septal defect)
2. ASD (atrial septal defect
3. PDA (patent ductus arteriosus)
Name 3 examples of R-to-L shunts. (early cyanosis) 'blue babies'
The 3 T's'

1. Tetralogy of Fallot
2. Transposition of great vessels
3. Truncus arteriosus
Name 7 common congenital malformations
1. heart defects
2. Hypospadias (when the urethral canal is open on the undersurface of the penis or on the perineum)
3. Cleft lip w/ or w/out cleft palate
4. congenital hip dislocation
5. Spina Bifida
6. Anencephaly
7. Pyloric stenosis
Name 11 autosomal-dominant diseases:
1. Adult polycystic kidney disease
2. Familial hyperchloresterolemia (type IIA)
3. Marfan's syndrome
4. Von Hippel-Lindau disease
5. Huntington's disease
6. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
7. Hereditary Spherocytosis
8. Achondroplasia
9. Von Recklinghausen's disease (NF1)
10. NF2
11. Tuberous Sclerosis

FAMiNe is DOMINANT on Hunger TV
Name an X-linked recessive muscular disease that leads to accelerated muscle breakdown.
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Name the 4 components of Tetralogy of Fallot.
1. Pulmonary Stenosis
2. RVH (right ventricular hypertrophy)
3. Overriding aorta (overrides the VSD)
4. VSD (ventricular septal defect)
Neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly) are associated with increased levels of ___ in the amniotic fluid and maternal serum.
AFP (alpha fetal protein)
Newborns of mothers who consumed significant amounts of alcohol (teratogen) during pregnancy are at risk for _______.
fetal alcohol syndrome
(the number one cause of congenital malformations in the U.S.)
Patau's syndrome = trisomy ___
13 (hint: Puberty - 13)
Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis:
defective Cl- channel -->
secretion of abnormally thick mucus-->
plugs lungs, pancreas, and liver -->
recurrent pulmonary infections (Pseudomonas & Staph aureus), chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pancreatic insufficiency (malabsorption and steatorrhea), meconium ileus in newborns.
cyanotic spells occur with what?
Tetralogy of Fallot
Pyloric stenosis is associated with______.
polyhydramnios; projectile vomiting
T/F: Trisomy 21 is associated with advanced maternal age.
True (from 1 in 1500 births in women<20 to 1 in 25 births in women>45)
Tetralogy of Fallot leads to early cyanosis from a R-to-L shunt across the ____.
The defect in Von Recklinghausen's disease is found on which chromosome?
17 (hint: 17 letters in Recklinghausen's)
The gene responsible for Huntington's disease is located on chromosome__.
4 ; triplet repeat disorder
The incidence of neural tube defects is decreased by maternal ingestion of what?
Transposition of great vessels is a common congenital heart disease in offspring of _____ mothers.
Transposition of great vessels is not compatible with life unless what is present?
a shunt that allows adequate mixing of blood (VSD, PDA, or patent foramen ovale)
Trisomy 18 is also known as______.
Edward's syndrome (hint: Election age = 18)
Turner's syndrome is the most common cause of what?
primary amenorrhea
Von Hippel-Lindau disease characteristics:
hemangioblastomas of:

1/2 develop multiple bilateral renal cell carcinomas and other tumors
Von Hippel-Lindau disease is associated with the deletion of what gene?
VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chromosome 3 (3p)
What are some findings of Down's syndrome?
mental retardation
flat facial profile
prominent epicanthal folds
simian crease
duodenal atresia
congenital heart disease (MC endocardial cushion defect->ASD)
Alzheimer's disease in individuals over 35
increased risk of ALL
What does a heart with Tetralogy of Fallot look like on x-ray?
boot-shaped due to RVH
What gender genetic disorder has been observed with increases frequency among inmates of penal institutions?
Double Y males (XYY)
What is different about the juvenile form of polycystic kidney disease?
it is recessive
What is Gower's maneuver?
requiring assistance of the upper extermities to stand up (indicates proximal lower limb weakness)
What is the cause of Duchenne's MD?
a deleted dystrophin gene (hint: 'D' for deletion)
What is the cause of Tetralogy of Fallot?
anterosuperior displacement of the infundibular septum
What is the incidence of Down's syndrome?
1 in 700 births
What is the most common cause of early cyanosis?
Tetralogy of Fallot
What is the most common chromosomal disorder and cause od congenital mental retardation?
Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
What is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly?
What is the most common lethal genetic disease of Caucasians?
Cystic Fibrosis
What is the second most common cause of mental retardation?
Fragile X syndrome
What is the underlying cause of Cystic Fibrosis incl. chromosome?
Autosomal - recessive defect in CFTR gene on chromosome 7
What is the underlying cause of Familial hypercholesterolemia?
defective or absent LDL receptor leading to elevated LDL
1. What is used to close a patent ductus arteriosus?
2. What is used to keep it open?
1. Indomethacin
2. PGE (may be necessary to sustain life in conditions such as transposition of the great vessels)
Which gene is affected in Fragile X?
methylation and expression of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene (FMR 1 gene)
Which genetic gender disorder has an inactivated X chromosome (Barr body)?
Klinefelter's syndrome
Why are female carriers of X-linked recessive disorders rarely affected?
because of random inactivation of X chromosomes in each cell
X-linked recessive disorders (10)
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia
Ocular albinism
Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome
Fragile X
G6PD deficiency
Hemophilia A and B
Hunter's syndrome
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Duchenne's MD

BOW to the Fair queen w/ Good X genes and dont' lose HOLD of your head.
XO =
Turner's syndrome (think: 'hugs and kisses' -XO- from Tina Turner)
Klinefelter's syndrome one of the most common causes of hypogonadism in males
Approximately what percentage of brain tumors arise from metastasis?
Are basal cell carcinomas invasive?
Locally invasive but rarely metastasize
Are Ewing's sarcomas likely to metastasize?
Yes. They are extremely aggressive with early metastasis. However, they are responsive to chemotherapy.
Are meningiomas resectable?
Are squamous cell carcinomas of the skin invasive?
Locally invasive but rarely metastasize
Are the majority of adult tumors supratentorial or infratentorial?
Are the majority of childhood tumors supratentorial or infratentorial?
Common histopathology often seen in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin?
Keratin pearls
Define anaplasia
Abnormal cells lacking differentiation; like primitive cells of the same tissue. Often equated with undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. Tumor giant cells may be formed.
Define dysplasia
Abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size in comparison to normal tissue maturation. It is reversible but is often a preneoplastic sign.
Define hyperplasia
Increase in the number of cells (reversible)
Define metaplasia
One adult cell type is replaced by another (reversible). It is often secondary to irritation and/or environmental exposure (e.g. squamous metaplasia in the trachea and bronchi of smokers)
Define neoplasia
Clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
Do oncogenes cause a gain or loss of function?
Gain of function
Do tumor suppressor genes cause a gain or loss of function?
Loss of function. Both alleles must be lost for expression of disease
Does a melanoma have a significant risk of metastasis?
Very significant risk! The depth of the tumor often correlates with the risk of metastasis.
From what cells do meningiomas most commonly arise?
Arachnoid cells external to the brain
benign tumors of epithelial origin are called?
1. Adenoma 2. Papilloma
2 Names for a malignant tumor of mucosal epithelial origin.
1. Adenocarcinoma 2. Papillary carcinoma
Give 2 examples of malignant tumors of blood cell (mesenchymal) origin.
1. Leukemia 2. Lymphoma
Give Name for a benign tumor of blood vessel origin.
Name for a benign tumor of bone origin.
Give name for benign tumor of more than one cell type.
Mature teratoma
Give name for a benign tumor of skeletal muscle (mesenchymal) origin.
Give an name for a benign tumor of smooth muscle origin.
Name for malignant tumor of blood vessel origin.
Give an example of a malignant tumor of bone origin.
Give an example of a malignant tumor of more than one cell type.
Immature teratoma
Give an example of a malignant tumor of skeletal muscle origin.
Give an example of a malignant tumor of smooth muscle (mesenchymal) origin.
Give an example of a neoplasm associated with Down's Syndrome.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

we ALL fall DOWN
How are tumor markers used?
Tumor markers are used to confirm diagnosis, to monitor for tumor recurrence, and to monitor the response to therapy. They should not be used as a primary tool for diagnosis.
How is prostatic adenocarcinoma most commonly diagnosed?
Digital rectal exam (detect hard nodule) or by prostate biopsy
How often do primary brain tumors undergo metastasis?
Very rarely
In what population is osteochondroma most often found?
Usually men under the age of 25
In which age group is prostatic adenocarcinoma most common?
Men over the age of 50
Is malignant transformation in osteochondroma common?
Malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma is rare
Name 1 common tumor staging system.
TNM system T= size of tumor, N=node involvement, and M=metastases
Name 3 herniation syndromes that can cause either coma or death when the herniations compress the brainstem
1. Downward transtentorial (central) herniation 2. Uncal herniation 3. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation into the foramen magnum
Name 4 factors that predispose a person to osteosarcoma.
1. Paget's disease of bone
2. Bone infarcts
3. Radiation
4. Familial retinoblastoma
Name 4 possible routes of herniation in the brain
1. Cingulate herniation under the falx cerebri 2. Downward transtentorial (central) herniation 3. Uncal herniation 4. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation into the foramen magnum
Name 5 primary brain tumors with peak incidence in adulthood.
1. Meningioma
2. Glioblastoma multiforme
3. Oligodendroglioma
4. Schwannoma
5. Pituitary adenoma
Name 5 primary brain tumors with peak incidence in childhood.
1. Medulloblastoma
2. Hemangioblastoma
3. Ependymomas
4. Low-grade astrocytoma
5. Craniopharyngioma

Brain tumors get
Children at the HELM
Name 5 sites from which tumor cells metastasize to the brain.
1. Lung
2. Breast
3. Skin (melanoma)
4. Kidney (renal cell carcinoma)
5. GI
Name a common histopathological sign of basal cell carcinoma nuclei
The nuclei of basal cell tumors have 'palisading' nuclei
Name a population at a greater risk for melanoma.
Fair-skinned people (blue eyes and red hair have also been considered as factors)
Name the 5 primary tumors that metastasize to the liver
1. Colon
2. Stomach
3. Pancreas
4. Breast
5. Lung
Name two of the most common sites of metastasis after the regional lymph nodes
The liver and the lung
Name two presenting sequelae of a pituitary adenoma.
1. Bitemporal hemianopsia (due to pressure on the optic chiasm) 2. Hypopituitarism
On which chromosome is the p53 gene located?
On which chromosome is the Rb gene located?
On which chromosomes are the BRCA genes located?
BRCA 1 is on 17q and BRCA 2 is on 13q
Out of the 6 primary tumors that metastasize to bone, which two are the most common?
Metastasis from the breast and prostate are the most common
What 2 cancers are associated with EBV?
1. Burkitt's lymphoma 2. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
What 2 neoplasms are associated with AIDS?
1. Aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkins) 2. Kaposi's sarcoma
What 2 tumors are associated with Autoimmune disease (e.g. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, etc.)?
Benign and malignant thymomas
What 2 neoplasms are associated with Paget's disease of bone?
1. Secondary osteosarcoma 2. Fibrosarcoma
What 2 neoplasms are associated with facial angiofibroma, seizures, and mental retardation?
Tuberous sclerosis
1. Astrocytoma
2. Cardiac rhabdomyoma
What are 2 characteristic findings in carcinoma in situ?
1. Neoplastic cells have not invaded the basement membrane 2. High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio and clumped chromatin
What are 2 characteristic findings of an invasive carcinoma?
1. Cells have invaded the basement membrane using collagenases and hydrolases 2. Able to metastasize if they reach blood or lymphatic vessels.
What are 2 neoplasms associated with Xeroderma pigmentosum?
1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin 2. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin
What are 3 disease findings associated with Alkaline Phosphatase?
1. Metastases to bone 2. Obstructive biliary disease 3. Paget's disease of bone
What are 6 primary tumors that metastasize to bone?
1. Breast
2. Prostate
3. Kidney
4. Lung
5. Testes
6. Thyroid
What are a common histopathological finding of meningiomas?
Psammoma bodies. These are spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern.
What are ependymomas?
Ependymal cell tumors most commonly found in the 4th ventricle. May cause hydrocephalus
What are the steps in the progression of neoplasia?
1. Normal
2. Hyperplasia
3. Carcinoma In Situ/Preinvasive
4. Invasion
What are two signs of bone metastases in prostatic adenocarcinoma?
Alkaline phosphatase &
PSA (prostate-specific antigen)
Elevations in serum
What are two useful tumor markers in prostatic adenocarcinoma?
Prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
What can be associated with the risk of melanoma?
Sun exposure
What cancer is associated with HBV and HCV (Hep B and C viruses)?
Hepatocellular carcinoma
What cancer is associated with HHV-8?
Kaposi's carcinoma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus KSHV
What cancer is associated with the HTLV-1 virus?
Adult T-cell leukemia
What cancers are commonly associated with HPV (human papilloma virus)?
Cervical carcinoma, penile, and anal carcinoma
What causes the local effect of a mass?
Tissue lump or tumor
What causes the local effect of a nonhealing ulcer?
Destruction of epithelial surfaces (e.g. stomach, colon, mouth, bronchus)
What causes the local effect of a space-occupying lesion?
-Raised ICP w/ brain neoplasms.
-Anemia w/ bone marrow replacement.
-CN deficits w/ compression
What causes the local effect of bone destruction?
Pathologic fracture or collapse of bone
What causes the local effect of edema?
Venous or lymphatic obstruction
What causes the local effect of hemorrhage?
Caused by ulcerated area or eroded vessel
What causes the local effect of inflammation of a serosal surface?
Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or ascites
What causes the local effect of obstruction in the biliary tree?
What causes the local effect of obstruction in the bronchus?
What causes the local effect of obstruction in the left colon?
What causes the local effect of pain?
Any site with sensory nerve endings. Remember that tumors in the brain are usually painless.
What causes the local effect of perforation of an ulcer in the viscera?
Peritonitis or free air
What causes the local effect of seizures?
Tumor mass in the brain.
What causes the localized loss of sensory or motor function?
Compression or destruction of nerve (e.g. recurrent laryngeal nerve by lung or thyroid cancer causes hoarseness)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect gout?
Hyperuricemia due excess nucleic acid turnover (secondary to cytotoxic therapy of various neoplasms)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect of Cushing's disease?
ACTH or ACTH-like peptide (secondary to small cell lung carcinoma)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect of hypercalcemia?
PTH-related peptide, TGF-a, TNF-a, IL-2 (secondary to squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, breast carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and bone metastasis)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect of Lambert-Eaton syndrome?
Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at NMJ (Thymoma, bronchogenic carcinoma)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect of Polycythemia?
Erythropoietin (secondary to renal cell carcinoma)
What causes the paraneoplastic effect of SIADH?
ADH or ANP (secondary to small cell lung carcinoma and intracranial neoplasms)
What chemical carcinogen is commonly associated with the centrilobar necrosis and fatty acid change?
What chemical carcinogen is commonly associated with the esophagus and stomach?
What chemical carcinogen is commonly associated with the lungs?
Asbestos (Causes mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma)
What chemical carcinogen is commonly associated with the skin (squamous cell)?
What chemical carcinogen(s) are commonly associated with the liver?
Aflatoxins and vinyl chloride
What is a chondrosarcoma?
Malignant cartilaginous tumor.
What is a common genetic finding in Ewing's sarcoma?
11;22 translocation
What is a common gross pathological sign seen in Ewing's sarcoma?
Characteristic 'onion-skin' appearance of bone
What is a common origin of a chondrosarcoma?
May be of primary origin or from osteochondroma
What is a common sign found on the x-ray of a person with osteosarcoma?
Codman's triangle (from elevation of periosteum)
What is a craniopharyngioma?
Benign childhood tumor. Often confused with pituitary adenoma because both can cause bitemporal hemianopsia. Calcification of the tumor is common.
What is a Ewing's sarcoma?
Anaplastic small cell malignant tumor.
What is a giant cell tumor?
Locally aggressive benign tumor around the distal femur, proximal tibial region.
What is a gross pathological sign of basal cell carcinoma?
Pearly papules
What is a helpful mnemonic to remember the neoplasm associated with Down's Syndrome?
We ALL go DOWN together.
What is a helpful mnemonic to remember the site of metastasis to the brain?
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia
What is a helpful mnemonic to remember the types of cancer that metastasize to the liver?
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver
What is a helpful mnemonic to remember what tumors metastasize to bone?
BLT with a Kosher Pickle
What is a Hemangioblastoma?
Most often a cerebellar tumor. Associated with von Hippel Lindau syndrome when found with retinoblastoma.
What is a low-grade astrocytoma?
Diffusely infiltrating glioma. In children, it is most commonly found in the posterior fossa.
What is a medulloblastoma?
Highly malignant cerebellar tumor. A form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Can compress 4th ventricle causing hydrocephalus
What is a neoplasm associated with actinic keratosis?
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

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