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Music History II Unit 3


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Classical period time frame
The enlightenment
philosophical movement of the 18th century marked by questioning of individual doctrines and values
Artists of the enlightenemnt
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Voltaire, Rousseau
18th century life
Cosmopolitan: Vienna, mixed backgrounds
secret society of men, longing for universal brotherhood. Many composers belonged to this group
Two examples of freemasonry
1. Mozart's: Die Zauberflote: filled with masonic ideas
2. Beethoven's 9th Symphony: Ode to joy text, brotherhood.
Women's rights
women started to mingle into mens groups
Pursuit of learning
desire for education
decorative light syle that prevailed in the courts of the 18th century
Public concerts of the 18th century
Held in: Concert Spirituals (paris)
Gewanghaus (leipzig)
Classical music
music where reason prevails over emotion
Names applied to the classical era
Classic, Classical, Roccoco, Galant, Empfinsam (sensiblility)
two or more contrasting or complimentary phrases ending with a cadence
harmonic periodicity
a structure marked by frequent full and half cadences and integrated through motivic correspondences
Alberti bass
arpegiated bass
Emotional contrast
used modulation to contrast themes within the same piece
musical rhetoric
the way the composer sets up the antecedant and consequent
absolute music
no association with any object, idea, or event outside of itself
Comic opera
Opera buffa, dramma giocoso
Opera seria
propaganda intended to promote the emperor. 3 acts, 2 lovers, 2 alternate lovers, overture and recitative.
Pietro Metastasio
Librettist for operas
Opera seria: Arias
abbreviated da capo aria-"dal Segno"
Johann Adolph Hasse, Opera
Italian Comic opera
opera buffa: 2 acts, virtuosic bass vocal solos, ensemble finales, fast patter.
French comic opera
Opera Comique, vaudvilles: Querelle des bouffons
Querelle des bouffons
pamphlet war about which types of opera were more satisfying (Opera Buffa vs Tragedie Lyrique)
french adaptation of the italian aria
Rescue opera
character is in peril in which they cant escape. In the end they are rescued by a hero.
England: Comic opera
The Beggar's Opera: John Gay
The beggars opera, John Gay
unoriginal music. uses satire ("weird al")
"sung play" german opera which uses spoken dialogue instead of recitative (Die Zauberflote)
Opera reform (1750's)
composers saught to make opera a more real experience, music to be servant of drama.
6 Characteristics of opera reform
1.)Modified da capo arias
2.)Altered recitatives and arias for more flexibility
3.)Greater use of accompanied recitatives
4.)Orchestra has increased role, adding harmonic depth
5.)reintroduction of choruses
6.)composers did not cave-in to demands of singers.
Christoph Willibald Gluck
felt music was the servant of the words/drama. Opera reform composer.
Two operas by Gluck
Orfeo ed Euridice
Domenico Scarlatti
Son of Alessandro Scarlatti, 555 sonatas for keyboard.
Sonata-Allegro form
0) Introduction (optional)
1.) Exposition
a) First Theme (home key)
b) Second theme (contrasting key)
2) Development (modulates trough various keys with fragments of original themes)
3) Recapitulation
a) First Theme (Home key)
b) Second theme (Home key)
c) Coda (ends the movement in home key)
Large Sonata Form
First: Sonata-Allegro from (Allegro)
Second: Theme and variations, Sona-Allegro form, Ternary (A-B-A) (Andante)
Third: Minuet and trio, Scherzo and trio (Allegro)
Fourth: Sonata-Allegro form, Rondo, Theme and variations (Allegro)
Form: Italian opera overtures
Giovanni Sammartini
One of the first composers of symphony
Empfindsaner Stil
(sensibility) applied to passions and melancholy which typify some of the slow movements and oblogata recitatives of the early classical periods. (Strictly German)
prussian sonatas (Carl Bach)
exhibit new styles for younger audiences
Wurttemberg Sonatas (Carl Bach)
written for clavichord
invented by Bartolommeo Cristofori
Sturm and Drung
Movement during 18th century which relished torment, gloomy, and irrational feelings.
Composer of mannheim (German Symphonic)
Johann Stamitz: 74 symphonies
a) Group bowings
b) "Mannheim Steamroller"
c) Great dynamic range
Johann Christian Bach
Ca. 40 concertos for piano and orchestra
Over 90 symphonies
Franz Joseph Haydn
(1732-1809), Born in Rohrau, Austria, Choirboy at "Stephensdom" in Vienna, Count Morzin (1758), Esterhazy Court (1721-1790), Barryton, Vienna (1790-1809), Trips to london (1791 & 1794), Johann peter solomon, Hoboken=Haydn's Cataloguer
Haydn symphonies
Haydn: Four movements in Large sonata form:
1. Sonata-Allegro
2. Andante Moderato
3. Minuet and Trio (a movement introduced by Haydn)
4. Allegro (Rondo, Variation form, or Sonata-Allegro)
Haydn Symphonies 1-91
composed while haydn worked for esterhazy
Haydn Symphonies 82-91
"Paris symphonies" were composed for a concert sries in france
Haydn Symphonie 92
composed for his honorary doctorate degree in Oxford.
Haydn Symphonies 93-104
"London "Symphonies" for london audiences
Haydn Large sonata form for instrumental concertos:
1) Sonata-Allegro movement
a) double exposition
b) Cadenza
2) Slow, lyrical movement
3) Rondo Form
d)Etc. (any combination of repeated "A" section)
Qualites of Haydn Symphonies 88-104
greater use of winds, tighter thematic unity, greatuer use of contrapuntal techniques
theme appears three of more times with contrasting sections between its appearences
Haydn string quartets
Over 70(Usually in four movements)
Haydn Piano sonatas and trios
60 and 32
Haydn mass
Lord nelson mass
Haydn oratorio
The creation
End of Haydn works
"laudate domine" praise the lord
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756-1791) Salzburg, Father: Leopold Mozart, K=kochel,
(mozart) Salzburg years
17 piano sonatas, sets of variation for piano, 35 sonatas for violin and piano
(mozart) "Rondo alla turca" Janissary music
written in imitation of turkish military music, march rythms and percussion and instruments, such as BD cymbal and triangle.
Gottfried von Swieten
ambassador from berlin, introduced mozart to bach.
(mozart) chamber music
23 string quartets, 6 string quintets, clarinets quintet
(mozart)symphonies, name 2
41 unnumbered symphonies, 66 numbered linz and jupiter
Characteristics of (mozart) symphonies
greater demands on players (especially winds), greater harmonic and contrapuntal complexity, increased use of chromaticism, last movements tend to be climactic rather than light, greater dynamic contrast, pregnant use of rests.
(mozart) concertos
Sonata-Allegro, double exposition, andante, rondo.
(mozart) opera librettos
Lorenzo da Ponte
(mozart) Don Giovanni Characters
Don Giovanni: Archvillian/anti-hero (Baritone)
Leporello: Sidekick and servant of Giovanni (Bass)
Commendatore: Murdered father of Donna Anna (Bass)
(mozart) Don Giovanni Conquests
Donna Anna: daughter of a military officer (Soprano)
Donna Elvira: A titled lady of Burgos (Soprano)
Zerlina: A Peasant girl (Soprano)
Die Zauberflote
(mozart) Church music
Requiem, finished by SuBmayer
Ludwig Van Beethoven
(1771-1827) Born in Bonn, moved to vienna: studied with salieri and Haydn
(Beethoven) Heiligenstadt Testament
Suicide letter
Works (Beethoven)
9 symphonies, fidelio, violin concerto, 5 piano concertos, 11 concert overtures and incidental music, 2 masses, 16 string quartets, 9 piano trios, 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, 32 piano sonatas (and several variations and lesser works), several lieder for piano and voice
Beethoven's main instrument
PIANO!!!! WOOO!!!!! YES!
(Beethoven) Piano sonatas
32, Moonlight, Pathetique
(Beethoven) Life divided into three periods
1) First period: Classical Style
2) Second Period: Revolutionary style
3) Third Period: Introverted Style (Result of Deafness)
(Beethoven) Symphonies
Differences from Classical Era Symphonies of Mozart and Haydn
a) much longer
b) increased size of orchestra
c) more raw emotion
d) changed the third movement from a minuet to scherzo
e) adds chorus and soloists in the ninth symphony
f) greater contrast of dynamics
(Beethoven) Symphony 9 in D Major
(1) Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso: tightly thematic sonata allegro form.
(2) molto vivace: Scherzo (flip flop of traditional 2 and 3 placement)
(3) Adagio molto e cantabile: set of introspective variations
(4) Presto - "O fruende, nicht diese Tone!"
Long programatic introduction : includes piccolo, contrabassoon, trombones, and auxillary percussion (trangle, cymbals, and BD), first symphony to include vocal soloists (SATB) and chorus, sets schiller's poem "An die fruede!"
Immortal Beloved

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