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Communication Science and Disorders


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incidence and prevalence of stuttering
1% stutter at the moment, 5% have stuttered at some point for 6 months or more; 3:1 ration of males to females
Afferent Neuron
a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
primary stuttering behaviors
the dysfluencies (common to most people): repetitions, prolongations [of a sound], interjections; block (not common to most people): a silent prolongation for 1-2 seconds, feel like they're stuck,
stop as soon as a stuttered word is complete, pause, then say word again in an "easy" way
elevated ridges of brain tissue, separated by shallow grooves called sulci
congenital palatopharyngeal incompetence
no cleft, but can't close velopharyngeal port, short palate, deep pharynx,
cavities within the brain (4)
Orthopedic Classification
limbs affected: monoplegia (one limb), paraplegia (both legs), triplegia (three limbs), quadriplegia (four limbs)
measure stuttering
total number of words with within-word dysfluencies/total number of words times 100 for frequency
shallow grooves that separate gyri
Peripheral Nervous System
cranial nerves, spinal nerves
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
Distinctive features
all sounds have different features
Inhale procedure
air enters, ribcage moves out, lungs expand, diaphragm moves down
Shoulder Blade
narrowing of vocal cavity, degree of constriction, lip rounding
muscles of exhalation
rectus abdominis, internal intercostals
Cleft Palate Causes
failure of disruption / development during 3rd month gestation; hereditary, environment (teratogenic agents, stress, medications, infections, substances)
Right Hemisphere
Wholistic functioning
Fluency Shaping
train a slower speech rate, relaxed breathing, easy initiation of sounds, smoother transition between words
receive neural stimuli from other neurons and receptors
speech that is easy, rapid, rhythmical, flowing
Frequency of Phonation
vibration frequency; determined by the mass and tension of the vocal folds; increased tension when folds are stretched, think of rubber band that's stretched and plucked (how high is frequency?)
when vocal folds are brought together
a whitish, waxy and fatty material that covers most nerve fibers
preparatory sets
anticipate stuttering on certain sound or word and form a preparatory set to "ease" into the word
Extrapyramidal tract
pathway that helps with control of movement
long fiber that conducts nerve impulses away from cell body (may be as long as 1 meter or a few micrometers)
Cleft Lip Surgery
are usually repaired within first three months (cheiloplasty)
a neuromuscular dysfunction of speech; damage to central and/or peripheral nervous system pathways causing muscle dysfunction; causes muscle weakness, muscle incoordination, paralysis of muscles
at top and back of cricoid are pyramid-shaped arytenoid cartilages, lie in concave indentations on cricoid, anchored by ligaments
expiration (exhalation)
reduction in lung volume, causes in increase in air pressure in the lungs, with an outward flow of air
Broca's area
program speech movements for speech production; language formulation
sounds are not produced in isolation; the anticipation of upcoming sounds to be produced; overlapping of articulatory movements
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron
Left Hemisphere
Sequential hemisphere
ease out of repetitions, prolongations, and blocks
a cell's central control system (like the cell's brain)
speech breathing
lungs are increased to larger volume; longer expiratory phases
shaped like a signet ring, located at top of trachea, larger in back than front
Effects of cleft lip / palate
doesn't affect speech unless alveolar ridge is involved, resonance problems with vowels if air ends up in nasal cavity, social and parental interactions / concerns, feeding, speech, dental
Secondary Stuttering Behaviors
counterproductive adaptations made by people who stutter as they try to get through primary stuttering behaviors or try to avoid those behaviors: blinking eyes, opening jaws, pursing lips, changing words, flapping arms (become more distracting than primary stuttering behaviors)
made up by a series of cartilage rings extending from larynx to bronchi of lungs
place of constriction, manner of constriction, voicing
Efferent Neuron
carries motor info to the muscles and glands ( brain telling body what to do)
development of stuttering
early development (7% of world are somewhat dysfluent), genetic influences (3 x greater for person with first degree family member who also does this), environmental demands and capacity for fluency (if 2 parents are in a hurry to go somewhere, child might perceive pressure to talk faster than his motor speech capabilities will allow...child begins to associate storytelling with dysfluency)
Cleft Lip and Palate incidence and frequency across ethnicities
1 out of 750 live births; most frequent to least frequent: Native Americans, Asians, Caucasians, African Americans
superior sphincter pharyngoplasty
secondary surgery for cleft palate - segments of muscle added to area of closure
bowl-shaped partition between lungs and abdominal contents
Jaw; largest mass of any articulator; serves as platform for tongue; lowers or raises tongue depending on height of vowel;
location where sensory information from body receptors comes in via nerves (touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vision, hearing, balance); also where cranial nerves leave to go out to muscles
vocal tract composed of
(made up of series of interconnected tubes) oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx
quiet breathing
15-18 breaths per minute
Brain Hemispheres
left hemisphere, right hemisphere, Brodmann areas
Law of Gases
air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
Cleft Palate Surgery
typically repaired at around 12 months of age; called primary palatoplasty (about 80-90% who have this procedure will have adequate velopharyngeal closure)
dysarthria differences between children and adults
children: most frequently associated with cerebral palsy; adults: most frequently arises from cerebrovascular or progressive neurological disease
Voice Problems with Cleft
hypernasality (nasal emission), hoarseness (straining voice), cul-de-sac resonance ( front of nose blocked)
Vocal Folds
two pairs (false and true), notch below adam's apple, phonates on and off
pharyngeal flap surgery
secondary surgery for cleft palate - create flap of tissue attached to back wall of throat with other end sutured to soft palate
Nasal Cavity
to cleanse, warm, and humidify air passing through it during inspiration;
Intensity of Phonation
determined by force with which air escapes through the glottis; and strikes air mass in vocal tract above the vocal folds; determined by amount of subglottal pressure, greater the pressure, the greater the movement of vocal folds, greater the amount of air escaping through glottis, the louder the sound
Dysfluency examples
describes speech that is marked by repetitions, interjections, pauses, and revisions
fundamental frequency
equal to the frequency of the vibration of the focal folds
when vocal folds come apart
true vocal folds
composed of tissue layer and vocalis muscle, extend from arytenoid cartilages in back to the point just below thyroid cartilage in front
oral cavity
from lips to back of throat
false vocal folds
lie above true vocal folds, closed during heavy lifting
lungs surrounded by 12 pairs; 7 pairs attach to sternum; 3 pairs attach to cartilage at base of sternum; 2 "floating ribs" - don't touch sternum
Bernoulli Effect
reduction of air pressure with increases in air flow, as air rushes into opening created by fold movement, the air pressure is reduced between folds, folds are sucked back together
hard palate
inverted bowl-shaped; contact point for tongue; important for multiple sounds
Communication Problems with Cleft
language development problems (syndrome, psychosocial issues); hearing problems (middle ear disease and eustachian tube problems)
External Intercostals
sheet of 11 muscles lie between the ribs
aspects of motor speech programming that are longer/bigger than individual sounds (stress, intonation, rhythm)
Alveolar Ridge
bony semicircular shelf of the upper jaw (important for sounds like /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/)
Speech Problems with Cleft
Articulation Problems (problems with plosives, fricatives, and affricates), compensatory articulation (substitution of glottal and pharyngeal sounds for sounds they are trying to produce)
passive recoil of exhalation
when it is moved to a larger or smaller volume, a "force" is stored that will try to return it to rest position
opening [flap] between nose and mouth where oral and nasal cavities are joined
Articulation disorder
Phonetic errors, Problems in speech sound production, Difficulties w/ speech sound form, Disturbance in relatively peripheral motor processes, Production does not typically impact other language areas
Cleft Lip / Palate Prostheses
artificial substitutes for missing or deficient parts (speech bulbs - inadequacy; palatal lift - incompetency)
Pyramidal Tract
direct pathway from cortical surface to the peripheral nerves
Arcata Fasciculus
connects Wernicke's to Broca's area
velopharyngeal port
helps produce nasal and oral sounds (closed during oral sounds)
Motor Pathways
Pyramidal Tract, extrapyramidal tract
Stuttering modification
help person who stutters to acquire a speech style they find acceptable (motivation, identification, desensitization, variation, approximation, stabilization)
assessment process overview
spontaneous speech and language sample, articulation tests (single word and sentence tests), analysis of speech samples, oral-peripheral examination (oral mechanism exam)
phonological treatment
may teach / emphasize more linguistic principles
Outer Surface of Brain (covered with gyri and sulci)
how folds vibrate
open first at bottom of folds, opening progresses upward to the top, as they are blown apart, they move up and to the side, then brought back together again because they are elastic and return to their original state, also because of the Bernoulli effect
Tidal Volume
volume of air exchanged during a task; during quiet breathing, it's about 500 millileters of air that you inspire and expire
mobile articulators
jaw, tongue, face, velopharyngeal port
pharynx divided into
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
place where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged during breathing (air filled sacs)
Wernicke's area
language interpretation
factors related to cause of stuttering
stuttering resolves in 60-80% of people who stutter during childhood
larynx Functions
vocal folds within vibrate to create a voice; keeps food from entering the lungs; also vocal folds anchor thorax during heavy lifting or load bearing
phonological processes
variations in the way phonemes are combined
all vowels, diphthongs, nasals are voiced; fricatives, stops, affricates may be voiced or unvoiced
cause of stuttering
internal (inherited traits, temperament, cognitive abilities, language knowledge, information processing mechanisms (attention, perception, memory), speech motor control; external factors (culture, parental expectations, childrearing practices, educational experiences, relationships with siblings and peers)
space between true folds (vocal folds)
Cerebral Palsy
a syndrome of deficits in visual, auditory, intellectual or motor functions in critical early development period
Phonological Disorders
Phonemic errors, Problems in language fx of phonemes, Difficulties w/ phoneme fx, Disturbance is impairment of representation/organization of phoneme within language system, Production may impact other language areas
differences among people who stutter
not all people who stutter do so in the same way and with the same frequency; worse when people pressure themselves to be fluent;
when speech is interrupted by an unusually high frequency or duration of repititions, prolongations, blockages; when interruptions to speech are combined with excessive mental and physical effort to resume talking, when they have negative perceptions of their communication abilities
embedded in the alveolar ridge of maxilla [upper jaw]
at front of neck, single, butterfly-shaped thyroid cartilage, articulates [touches] the cricoid cartilage with horns called cornu, another set of horns (cornu) extend upward from body of thyroid to approximate the hyoid bone
orbicularis oris
tear-shaped muscle forming interior or upper and lower lip in a circle, functions to open, close, round, retract the mouth, important for consonants and vowels
neuromuscular classification system
spastic (resistance to muscle lengthening), athetoid (involuntary movements), ataxic (problems with coordination, speed, accuracy, rhythm)
articulation treatment
teach motor learning principles
Boyle's Law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas; when volume increases, pressure decreases
Severity Classification
how independent in communication, ambulation, and self-help skills: mild (no need for help), moderate (speech is impaired, treatment is needed), severe
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
lie within the bony thorax; access upper airway via the trachea
Central Nervous System
Brain, Spinal Cord
Cleft Palate major types
cleft of lip only: 25%; cleft of palate only: 25%; cleft of lip and palate: 50%
dysarthria affects...
respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance
Synaptic Cleft
a tiny gap that seperates each axon terminal from the next neuron (neuronal kiss)
nasal cavity
from the opening of the nostrils [nares] to the velopharynx
differences between people who stutter and people who don't stutter
more negative concepts of themselves as speakers, subtle differences in language abilities, may use their brains differently during speech
Exhale procedure
diaphragm moves up, lungs get smaller, ribcage moves down and in, air leaves
cartilages of larynx
cricoid, arytenoids, thyroid
fixed articulators
teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate
purpose is to convert respiratory energy into sound energy (phonation)
Submucous Cleft Palate
one child in 1200, no obvious sign of cleft, cleft present under mucous lining of palate
Brainstem consists of...
midbrain, pons, medulla
source-filter theory
vocal tract as resonator
inspiration (inhalation)
an increase in lung volume, causes a reduction in air pressure within the lungs, with an inward flow or air
the process of forming speech sounds by movement of the articulators to produce speech sounds
muscles of inspiration
diaphragm, external intercostals
rectus abdominis
muscle that pushes inward on abdominal contents
Broddman's area
Broca's area, Wernicke's area
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
Internal Intercostals
series of muscles between ribs (pull down on ribcage )
(teeth) important for sounds like voiced and voiceless /th/, /f/ and /v/
portion of the vocal tract extending from the vocal folds to the nasal cavity

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