This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.



undefined, object
copy deck
judicial review
the power of the courts to strike down (cancel) a law or executive action that violates the U.S. Constitution
powers of the executive
states created the Constitution to include a President similar to state Governors. Each carries out laws with the help of executive departments headed by cabinet secretaries. Each can check the legislative and judicial branches. Only the President is Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces
people born in the U.S. or whose parent is a U.S. citizen
limited government
public officials must obey the Constitution
helps protect our environment
checks and balances
each branch is powerful and can block other branches
interest group
private organization that lobbies
popular sovereignty
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 USSC decision that racial segregation in public schools violated the equal protection clause of Amendment 14. This decision overruled the USSC's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. The court ruled that even if the government funded black schools equal to white schools, the policy of segregation hurt the feelings of black people forever. Thus, separate can never be equal.
U.S. Constitution
document that has the basic laws of the U.S. gov't since 1789
common good
beneficial to all
a system in which the central government has more power than the states.
improvements to the U.S. Constitution. More than 3/4 of the states must approve these
helps make air travel safer
New Jersey v. T.L.O
case in which the U.S. Supreme Court set the precedent that a public school administrator can search a student if he has reasonable suspicion that the student has evidence regarding a violation of a school rule or a law.
U.S. Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution
consent of the governed
gov't has power only because we obey the law
roles of executives
The Governor and President have executive, legislative, judicial, political (= party), and symbolic functions. The President also has diplomatic and military power.
Tinker v. Des Moines Board of Education
case in which the U.S. Supreme Court set the precedent that students may participate in symbolic political speech in class as long as it does not violate other the rights of other students.
presidential use of power and executive orders
An executive order is a written command from the executive to an executive department
Declaration of Independence
a document American colonists wrote in 1776 to get Americans to fight for separation for Britain
people who to ask the government for something such as 1) kill unfavorable bills and 2) vote to pass favorable bills
electoral process
to be a candidate, one must file for office, win a party primary, and then win a general election. to be a voter in Maryland, a person must be an 18 year old citizen by general election day and must register 30 days before the election
Articles of Confederation
U.S. rules from 1781 to 1789.
Gideon v. Wainwright
case in which the U.S. Supreme Court set the precedent that states must pay for counsel for indigent = poor defendants
McCullough v. Maryland
national powers are stronger than state powers, and thatCongress can make laws not listed in the Constitution as long as the goal fits one of the other powers the Constitution gives to Congress
political action committees
organizations that raise money and contribute it to candidates
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 case in which the U.S. Supreme Court set the precedent that before police can question a suspect, they must inform the suspect of some of his due process rights.
changing the assignments of legislators due to a change in population distribution
Marbury v. Madison
a case in 1803 in which the U.S. Supreme Court justices established the power of judicial review
majority rule
largest group has more power
rule of law
everyone must always obey the law
central and state levels of gov't share power
a system in which the states have more power than the central government
helps protect us from unsafe medicine and foods.
representative democracy
people rule indirectly through elected legislators
citizens get to vote YES or NO on a ballot question in an election. If more people vote YES than the question becomes a new law.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 USSC case that began when the state of Louisiana arrested Homer Plessy for buying a ticket for the white part of a segregated train. Plessy argued that Louisiana's law violated the equal protection clause of Amendment 14. Louisiana argued that the railroad cars were equal because all were going to the same destination. The majority of USSC justices ruled that separate is legal if it is equal.
amendment process
normally a law can only become an amendment if 2/3 of Congress proposes an amendment then 3/4 of states ratify it.
individual rights and responsibilities
each of us must respect everyone else's rights
influencing the lawmaking process
people, interest groups, and PACS can use 1st amendment rights to lobby legislators and participate in elections.
A government that few people control; most people have no power
helps protect us from unfair actions by businesses
helps protect us from unfair action by communication companies
regional interests
people who live in different geographic areas have different needs
structure of executive branch
each executive department includes hundreds or thousands of worker headed by a cabinet secretary. The executive is the boss of the secretaries
public opinion
the way people feel about issues
powers of legislatures
making laws, checking the executive and judicial branches
a government that many people control; people have a power
people who have officially filed for office and are running to win elected office
mass and its roles
TV, movies, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the world wide web. Technologies that people use to communicate with many people at once. Helpful for propaganda to influence public opinion.
citizens collect signatures of registered voters to qualify a question for a referendum
political party
a private organization that works to get its member to win elections
campaign finance
money a candidate raises to pay for advertising through the media and to pay for staff
voting patterns
the way certain groups of people tend to vote
primary and general elections
parties have primaries to select one candidate to represent the party in final (general) election against the other party
demographic trends
the ways in which statistics about groups of people seem to be going.
separation of powers
three branches with different powers
structure of the national and state legislatures
states created the Constitution to include a bicameral (= two house) Congress similar to state legislatures. Both levels have a House and a more powerful Senate.

Deck Info