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Marieb Ch 2: Chemistry comes alive


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Everything that occupies space and has mass?
States of matter?
solid liquid gas
Termed the capacity to do work?
Types of energy?
Kinetic and potential
Termed for energy in action?
Termed for stored energy?
Example of kinetic energy?
door swinging
Example of potential energy?
The form stored energy in the bonds of chemical substances? ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Chemical energy
How does ATP release its energy?
The bonds are broken and the stored energy is released as needed to do cellular work.
Reflects movement of charged particles (electrons and ions)?
Electrical energy
Energy that moves matter?
Mechanical energy
Energy that travels in waves?
Radiant energy
Fundemental substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means?
Type of properties detcted by sight or measurement?
Physical properties
Type of properties of bonding behaviors of atoms?
Chemical properties
Elements are composed of?
Each has a nucleus containing protons, neutrons, and surrounded by electrons?
The difference in the element is due to the number of?
protons, neutrons, electrons
Symbol for proton?
Symbol for neutron?
Symbol for electron?
A positively charged particle?
A negatively charged particle?
Neither a negative nor a positive charged particle?
How many elements are known with certainty?
Of the 112 elements, how many occur in nature?
What elements make up 96% of the body weight?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen
Each element is designated by a one or two letter chemical shorthand called?
anatomic symbol
The nucleus carries what charge naturally?
Sincel all of the heavy subatomic particles are concentrated in the nucleus, this makes the nucleus what?
Accounts for 99.9% of the mass of an atom?
An electron has what amount of mass compared to a proton?
The mass of a proton and an electron is stated as____ and _____ AMU?
protons + neutrons=1AMU
In the atom, the number of protons always equals the number of?
All protons, neutrons, electrons are alike regardless of the ?
What determines the unique properties of each element?
the different number of protons, electrons and neutrons
Equal to the number of protons in its nucleus and is written as subscript to the left of its atomic symbol?
Atomic number

EX: 2He
The sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons?
Mass number
Different atomic forms of the same element, varying only in the number of neutrons?
Unstable heavier isotopes in atomic decay, isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior?
Two or more ATOMS bound together by chemical bond?
If two atoms of the SAME element combine it is called?
molecule of that element
If two different elements combine chemically, it is called?
A way to express the concentration of a solution; moles per liter of solution?
A substance composed of two or more components physically intermixed?
Three types of mixtures?
solution, colloids, suspension
Homogeneous mixture, may be gases, liquids, or solids?
The substance present in the greatest amount is known as the?
The substance present in smaller amount is known as the?
Also known as the dissolver?
Also known as what is being dissolved?
Avagaro's number?
6.02X10 to the 23 power
1 mole of any substance contains exactly the same number of ?
solute particles
Heterogeneous mixture known as an emulsion?
ex: cytosol in cell membrane
Heterogeneous mixture that settles withouth constant mixing? ex: oil & water, blood
Mixture differ from compounds because?
No chemical bonding in mixtures, mixtures can be separated by physcial means
All compounds are what type of mixture: homogeneous or heterogeneous?
An energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms?
Chemical bonds
Electrons forming the electron cloud around the nucleus of an atom occupy regions of space called?
electron shells
Each electron shell holds a specific number of?
An atom is stable when its valence is filled to capacity or contains_____ electrons?
Outermost energy level is called?
Define the rules of 8's key to chemical reactivity?
Minus the first energy shell, each shell from 2 to 7... must contain 8 electrons to be stable.
The octet rule is also known as?
Rule of eights
Chemically inert atoms have?
eight electrons in the valence shell
A group of elements that are chemically inert are called?
noble gases
helium and neon
Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the greatest mount of______?
potential energy
When an atom loses or gains an electron it is a charged particle known as?
A chemical bond between atoms form by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other is termed?
Ionic bond
The atom that gains one or more electrons is known as?
The electron acceptor
The electron acceptor acquires a negative charge, thus it is called a?
anion (an-ion)
Negatively charged ion is called?
The atom that loses electrons is called?
The electron donor
The electron donor acquires a positive charge thus is called?
cation (cat-ion)
A positively charged ion is known as? Thin t for +
Example of a anion?
Example of a cation?
The sharing of electrons that orbits each atoms valence in order to be stable?
Covalant bond
Type of bond when the electrons are equally shared?
Nonpolar covalent
When two atoms share one pair of electrons? Total of 2
single covalent bond
When two atoms share two pairs of electrons? total of 4
double covalent bonds
When atoms share three pairs of electrons? total of 6
triple covalent bond
The number of covalent bonds is indicated by what?
the line between the sharing atoms
Electrically balanced molcules have what type of bond?
nonpolar covalent bond
Unequal electron pair sharing is?
polar covalent bonds
The concentration of _______ determines the acidity of a solution?
All organic compounds have what type of bond?
covelent bond
Properties of water?
High heat capacity
high heat vaporization
polar solvent properties
universal solvent
hydration layers
reactivity(hydrolysis-dehydration synthesis)
The property of water that absorbs and releases large amount of heat before changing appreciably in temperature itself?
High heat capacity
This property of water, large amounts of heat are absorbed to break the hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together?
High heat of vaporization
When ions seperate from each other and become evenly scattered in water forming true solutions?
An important reactant in many chemical ractions?

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