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Cross cultural psy. 2


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the process of changing ones understanding of the world to accommodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts
ambivalent attachment
a style of attachment in which children are uncertain in their response to their mothers, going back and forth between seeking and shunning their attention. These mothers have been characterized as insensitive and less involved
the belief that all things, including inanimate objects are alive
the process of fitting new ideas into a preexisting understanding of the world
the special bond that developes between the infant and his or her primary caregiver. The quality of attachment has lifelong effects on or relationships with loved ones
avoidant attachment
a style of attachment in which children shun their mothers, who are suspected of being intrusive and overstimulating
the tendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem
cognitive developement
a specialty in psy that studies how thinking skills develop over time. The major theory is that of Piaget
an awareness that physical quantities remain the same even when they change shape or appearence
conventional morality
the second stage of Kohlbergs theory of moral developement, emphasizung conformity to rules that are defined by others approval or societies rules
difficult temperment
a type of temperament that is characterized by intense, irregular, withdrawing style that is generally marked by negative moods
easy temperament
a type of temperament that is defined by a very regular, adaptable midly, intense style of behavior that is positive and responsive
the inability to step into anothers shoes and understand the others point of view
goodness of fit
the interaction of the childs temperment with that of the parents, considered a key to the development of personality
great divide theory
theory of cognitive development that suggest that the thought of westerns is superior to that of the people who live in primitive societies
the inability to imagine "undoing" a process
postconventional morality
the 3 stage of kohlbergs theory of moral development, emphasizing moral reasoning on the basis of individual principles and conscience
preconventional morality
1 stage of kohlbergs theory of moral development, emphasizing the compliance with rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards
secure attachment
a style of attachment in which infants are described as warm and responsive to their caregiver
slow to warm up
a type of temperment in which infants need time to make transitions in activity and experiences. though they may withdraw initially or respond negatively, given time and support they will adapt and react positivly
qualities of responsiveness to the environment that exist from birth and evoke different reactions from people in the babys world. temperament is generally considered to be biologically based style of interacting with the world
What does Chrisolm say about CC studies on Temperament
argues that there is a connection between condition of the mother during pregnancy(high blood pressure) and irritability of the infant
two fundamental differences in CC studies of Temperamnet
temperament and environmental responses. fundamental difference in learning and social experiences and worldveiws
NBAS-Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale
T. Berry Brazelton-this is used to assess newborns behaviors in the 1st 30 days of life, it gives indication of tempermental characteristics -also used to illuminate differences across cultures and the relation to the cultural practices of caregiving, cultural goals 4 approprait baby behaviors and cultural ideas on the capabilities of infants
Bowlby's theory of attachment
evolutionary theory of attachment states that infants must have a preprogrammed biological basis for becoming attachment to their caregivers. -inncludes smiling and cooing to elicit physical attachment behaviors on the part of the mother. -attachment relationship bw caregiver and infant is survival strategy-children had a better chance of survival if they stayed close to mother.
Ainsworths classification system of attachment
based on observation of 28 mother-infant pairs over a year. 3 attachment styles 1-secure-stressed when mother leaves but easily comforted when she comes back 2-ambivalent-insecure-some distress when mother leaves but will send mixed signals 3-avoidant-insecure-not distressed when mother leaves and avoid mother when she returns 57% of mothers/infants securely attached 25% ambivalent 18% avoidant
the strange situation
infants seperated from their mothers for a brief period of time. the quality of attachment bw caregiver and child is derived from the assessment of the infants reaction to the spereation and reunion with mother
Different cultures see different kinds of attachments as good / bad
america=secure german see secure as spoiled
Crittenden suggests that
we should stop using the terms "secure" and "insecure" and use "adaptive" and "maladaptive" in a specific context
children have 4 stages that they grow from infancy into adolescence
1-sensorimotor stage-birth-2 yrs. children understand their emotions through their sensory perceptions and motor behaviors. perceiving and doing. ACHEIVMENT is the capibility to use mental symbols to represent objects and events.(knowing the object existd even without seeing it). imitation is also an important cognitive component of observational learing, and language skils are neccessary for proper communication of verbal soc. process 2-preoperational stage-2-6/7 years-thinking in five characteristics: conservation(awareness, that physical quantities remain the same even when they change shape)centration(tendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem,egocentrism(inability to step into another shoes), irreversibilyt(inabilty to imagine undoing a process), animism(all things alive) 3-concrete operations stage-6/7-11 years-child acquires new thinking skills ot work with actual objects. able to imagine undoing an action, focus on more than on teature of a problem. start understanding their are points of view other then their own . trial and error strategies 4- formal operations stage-11-adulthood- individauls develop the ability to think logically about abstarct concepts, such as peace, freedom, and justice. more systematic and thoughtfull in their approach to problem solving
Piagets 4 stages have two primary mechanisms responsible for movement from one stage to the next
1.assimilation-process of fitting new ideas into preexisting understnading of the world 2-accomodation-process of changing ones understanding of the worls to accomodate ideas that conflict with existing concepts
CC research on Piagets theory 4 questions
1-do piagets stages occur in the same order in diff cultures?-yes 2-are the ages that Piaget associated with each stage of development the same in all cultures?-cultural variations in 3rd and 4th stages 3-are there cultural variations within rather than between, piagets stages?-cultural variation in the order in which children acquire specific skills within Piagets stages 4-Do non western cultures regard scientific reasoning as the ultimate developmental end pint?-not all cultures think abstract hypothetical thought processes are the ultimate or desired end point in the cognitive developmental process. value "common sense"
heavily influenced by the underlying subjective and implicit culture in which it is embedded
Kohlbergs theory of Morality
1-preconventional morality-complianc ewith rules to avoid punishment and gain rewards. a person operating at this level would condem stealing as bad because the thief might get caught and thrown in jail . The focus of the justification is on the punishment(reward) assoiceted with the action 2-conventional morality-conformity to rules that are defined by others approval or societys rules. a person operating at this level of morality would judge stealing as wrong because it is against the law and others in society generally dissapprove of it. 3-postconventional morality-moral reasoning on the basis of individual principles and conscience. a person operating at this level of morality would judge stealing within the context either of societal or community needs or of his or her own personal moral beliefs and values, which supercede perceived societal and community needs
finding from c studies on kohlbergs theory
universal except for stage 3 -study from midwest USA in the 50s and 60s-amplicable?
used to denote all the mental processess we use to transform sensory input into knowledge sensatio(feelings that result from excitation of the sensory receptors touch taste smell..) and perception(initial interpretations of the sensations) are the 1st processes to occur when ppl process stimuli. LAter individuals engage inhigher order mental processes-thinking, reasoning, language, memory, problem solving, decision making
blind spot
a spot in our visual field where the optic nerve goes hru the layer of receptor cells on its way back toward the brain, creating a lack of sensory receptors in the eye at that location
carpentered world theory
theory of perceptin that suggests that ppl (most Americans) are used to seeing things that are rectangular in shape, and thus unconsciously expect thing to have square corners
to classify objects on the basis of perceived similarites and attach labels(words) to those classifications
counterfactual thinking
hypothetical beliefs about the past that could have occured in order to avoid or change a negative outcome
dialectical thinking
tendency to accept what seem to be contradictions in thought or beliefs
everyday cognition
an area of study that examines cog. skills and abilities that are used in everyday fuctioning that appear to develop without formal education but form performing daily tasks of living and working
front-horizontal foreshortening theory
theory of perception that suggests that we interpret vertica; lines as horizantal lines extending into the distance because we interoret the vertical line in the horiz. vertical illusion as extending away from us, we see it as longer
hindsight bias
the process in whi individuals adjust their memory for something after they find out the true outcome
multicultural studies
studies that examine cross ethnic group diff with a country
optical illusions
perceptions that involve an apparent discrepency bw how an object looks and what it actually is
positive logical determinsm
tendency to see contradictions as mutually exculsive categories, as either -or--yes-no, one-or-the-other tyoe categories
problem solving
process by which wwe attempt to discover ways pf acheiving goals that do not seem readliy attainable
serial position effect
the finding that ppl tend to remember something better if it id either the 1st or the last item in a list
stereotype threat
the threat that others judgements or ones own actions will negativly stereotype one in a domain (such as academic acheivment)
symbolizing three dimensions in two
theory of perception that suggests that ppl in western cultures focus on representations on paper than do ppl in other cultures, and in particular spend more time learning to interpret pictures
a gender identity that involves endorsement of both male and female characteristics (african americans)
the behaviors or patterns of activities a society or culture deems appropriate for men and woman. May or may not be related to sex roles
gender identity
the degree to which a person has awareness of a recognition that he or she has adopted a particular gender role
gender role
the degree to which a person adopts the gender specific behaviors ascribed by his or her culture(woman take care of babies, and men work)
gender role ideology
judgements about what gender roles in a particular country should be
gender stereotype
the psy or behavioral characteristics typically associated with men and women
concept related to Mexican American gender role differentiation of the male gender role, such as being unemotional, strong, authoritative, aggressive, and masculine
the biological and physological differences between men and women, the most obvious being th e anatomical diff in their reproductive organs
sex roles
the behaviors and patterns of activities men and women may engage in that are directly related to their biological differences and the process of reproduction
sexual identity
the degree of awareness and recognition by an individual of his or her sex and sex roles
universal categorizations
facial expressions, colors, shapes, stereotypes
western v african adults catergorization
western by function, african by color
japan v us children categories
japan-shared contextual meaing american-shared function
Is math universal
yes, but overall math abilities change due to education
dialectical thinking-
prefered by asian logical deternism prefered by americans
logical mathematical, liguistic, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal
sternbergs "subtheories"
contextual-ind ability to adaptto the environment, solving prob in specific situation experiental--ability to formulate new ideas and combine unrelated facts componential-ability to think abstractly, process info, and determine what needs to be done
3 roles mothers and fathers play in family
expressive- maintains a pleasant enviorn, emotion support financial-(fathers) contributing to fianances childcare-(mothers)
ACL adjective check list study
gender stereotypes across cultures- high degree of pancultural agreement across cultures in the characteristics of men and women
holfstedes "masculinity v feminity"
degree to which a cultue will foster, encourage, or maintain diff between males and females. Masculin cultures-more traditioal, focus on god feminine cultures- focus on fellow human, less traditional

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