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Anthropology 108 Midterm


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Sir Edward Tylor is known for his early definition of
"Anthropologists at Work" demonstrates which of the following points?
All of the above....
Anthropologists work in many different fields, they attempt to address human problems, and they work in and outside of academia.
Objectivity is comprised of
reliability and validity
The "native point of view" best describes which of the following terms
According to E. Fuller Torrey, to be cured an illness must first have a name. This is known as
The principle of Rumplestiltskin
The Framingham Heart study is an example of
A prospective study
Rules which specify that marriage should occur within one's own group are rules of
When anthropologists live with the poeple they are studying and interact with them to learn about their culture, we call it
Participant Observation
David Aberle described the functional prerequisites of a society by examining the conditions that ___________ it.
Piltdown Man
A and C
Demonstrates that science is cumulative and self-corrective a warning to science to critically examine evidence in support of current theories.
John van Willigen and V.C. Channa (Law,Custom, and Crimes Against Women: The problem of Dowry Death in India) suggest that dowry violence is less frequent in rural areas than cities because
rural caste groups have close, local relationships and regulate the dowry process
Corine A. Kratz (Circumcision, Pluralism, and Dilemmas of Cultural Relativism) makes the point that
recognized and enforced laws often reflect the interests of the dominant social group
Jared Diamond argues in his article, "Race Without Color" that
culture determines racial categories
True or False: The Holy Ghost People draw their religious practices from the literal interpretation of certain passages in the New Testament.
True or False: According to Ralf Dahrendorf, constraint holds societies together.
True or False: The American Anthropological Association's "Official Statement on Race" says its a valid biological concept
True or False: The extent to which mathematics can be applied to a discipline is a valid measure of its status as a science
True or False: The term "female genital mutilation" is an example of absolute cultural relativism
True or False: A negative function of female-selective abortion in India is an imbalanced sex ratio
True or False: The Tiv understood Hamlet in the same way Laura Bohannan did
True or False: The Navajo distinguish types of witchcraft according to technique (of casting the spell)
True or False: Even though founded by a woman, men held more prominent place in Shaker relgion than women
True or False: A hypothesis is a testable statement, usually derived from direct observation or a theory
True or False: Instead of trying to change society from within (such as by revolution), utopian sects have tried to set up ideal examples for the world to follow
True or False: The realm of science is limited to that which can be observed
True or False: Hypergyny is a marriage rule that pushes the female to marry above her own social standing in society
True or False: As a system of belief, visions justified the opportunity structure for 19th century Plains Indians by explaining why certain persons were more capable of assuming high-status position than others.
True or False: The Holy Ghost People are Pentecostals
True or False: According to the J-Curve Hypothesis of Conforming Behavior, the greater the punishment for breaking a rule, the more people conform to that rule
True or False: "Life Span" refers to how long we can expect to live, not how long it is possible to live
True or False: Mana is the name of the Hawaiian creator god, a personal diety similar to the Judeo-Christian Yahweh
True or False: In anthropological terminology, the Navajo category known as "wizardry" is an etic classification
True or False: Reliability and validity are twin goals of science. Reliability can be defined as repeatability, while validity can be defined as truth-value.
True or False: Native American "two spirits" provide evidence that, if legalized, gay marriage will destroy the institution of family
Culture is learned. It does not rely on genetic inheritance, although culture often affects and is affected by biological drives. Give one specific example of how culture influences the manifestation of biological drives.
Culture constrains behavior. It pushes people to do something or at least try to do something?? WHAT THE FUCK?
Aside from celibacy, name on other factor that contributed to the demise of the Shakers.
Right to Private property, change in leadership, sexual morals, revolution
According to Ralf Dahrendorf, two characteristcs of utopias are
Absence of Change, Social Harmony, and Isolated in Space
Speaking in Tongues and spirit are found in what group we have seen?
Shakers and the Holy Ghost people
Science differs from religion and magic in several ways, name one
Science is based more on proof and is empirical, rational, general, and cumulative. Religion and magic is based more on ideas and supernatural forces.
One negative legacy of the Shakers is
Restrictions on personal liberty, authoritarian government, celibacy
One positive legacy of the Shakers is
skilled craftspeople and artists, insistence on absolute equality of sexes, racial tolerance, set example of a successful pious and communal life
Give one specific example of how "Three-Ness" manifests itself in American culture.
Observed in language liike repeating phrase three times in a rhyme.
Three strikes your out, Three colors on stop light, Three Names (First, Middle, Last)
Air conditioning is designed to make our lives more comfortable by regulating the temperature inside the buildings where we live and work. But air conditioning has also had some unintended consequences for modern life. Name one.
Because of air conditioning, more buildings don't require a lot of windows, which can increase the spread of germs.
One way in which Ethnographers differ from Hypothesis-Testers is
Hypothesis-Testers emphasis on reliability requires methodological rigidity and Ethnographers are methodologically eclectc, flexible, and opportunistic
Define the term, Ethnocentrism
It's when you believe that your ethnic group has superiorority over another.
Anthropology comes from what group
What two Greek words does Anthropology derive from
Anthropos & Logos
What are the subfields of Anthropology
archaeology, biological or physical anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and applied anthropology
Name the four characteristics of anthropology
Broad in scope, holistic, comparative method, and culture
What goes together in the nature-nurture debate?
Culture: Nurture
Biological: Nature
who founded the nature versus nurture debate?
Margaret Mead
Matching: Margaret Mead
Coming of Age in Samoa
What is a metrosexual?
Heterosexual who behaves like homosexual
What is the behavioral arc?
Choices of what is acceptable
What is imperative selection?
When culture selects portions of one to be acceptable behavior; outside arcs are dieties
Inventor of the J-Curve
Floyd Allport
Positive and Negative effects of something
Smoking: Relaxes, but kills
Manifest and Latent
Car: gives you transportation, and tells your social status (Mercedes, or Honda)
What are natural experiments?
You go out into the real world, go into their world, to find out information
Matching: Sir Edward Tylor
Primitive Culture
Explain Philosophy versus Method
Anthropology began as a method but is now a philosophy, we can't judge other cultures
What is absolute Relativism?
Can't make judgements on others behaviors
What is cultural relativism?
Certain universal values that transcend (Female Selected Abortion)
What is a Caste system?
Social category you are born into (Race)
What is a Class system?
Social category with movement up and down
What is Endogamy?
Marrying within your group (race)
What is exogamy?
Marrying outside your class (Incest is a rule that says you must marry outside your class)
What is dowry?
Payment from brides family to husband
What is positivism?
There is a reality and we discover it
What is the Freudian hypothesis
Says that three is a male number
What is another word for speaking in tongue?
Explain Pentecostal
Group who seeks direct contact with the holy spirit. Comes from passages in the Bible.
What is the Quest Phase?
See it, get it. Must demonstrate it is valid.
What is sympathetic magic?
idea if you want something, you represent it (Voodoo dolls)
What is contagious magic?
Things that once you are in contact with, you are in contact with it forever
Who was the man who wrote about Witchcraft?
Clyde Kluckhohn
What are the four emic types of witchcraft?
Witchery, Sorcery, Wizardry, and Frenzy Witchcraft
What is the spanish word for the Navajo?
The Dine
What is the blessing way?
ceremony at weddings and birth
What is the Evil Way?
Ceremony cures people of witchcraft
What are bilateral descent groups?
Recognize both sides of the family
What are unilineal descent groups?
Klan where you belong to one kinship only, you belong to mothers clan only
What is science?
The observation, description, and explanation of natural phenomena
What is a theory?
a proposition that explains a phenomenon
What is a hypothesis?
A testable statement usually derived from a theory or from direct observation
What are the four things Science is?
Science is:
1. Empirical
2. Rational
3. General
4. Cumulative
Who discovered Piltdown Man?
Charles Darwin
Matching: Charles Darwin
Origin of Species
What was Piltdown Man?
missing link between man and apes, found to be a hoax
What is a society?
group of humans that share a self-sufficient system of action that lasts longer than a life span
What is a social system?
Group that does not re-generate from sex (shakers)
What is genocide?
Killing of people
What is Henry Dobyns 50-1 ratio?
Depopulation, society can stand 50-1, anymore will kill
What is ethnocide?
Destruction of culture, but not people
What is Terra Nullius?
If land is vacant, who claims it buys it
Who is Ralf Dahrendorf?
Opponent of conflicts. Real and Ideal societies. Created conflict model of society
What Is the Conflict Model of Society?
Change is ever-present, Conflict is normal, Contraint not consesus holds societies together
Matching: Plato
The Republic
Matching: St. Thomas More
Matching: Tommaso Campanella
City of the Sun
Who was Mother Ann Lee?
Creator of the Shaker Movement
What is the Shaker Theology
Bisexuality of God/androgyny, distinction between Holy Spirit and the tabernacle of the flesh, rejected the trinity and rsurrection
Shakers live according to what five principles?
common property, celibacy, nonresistance, separate government, power over disease
What are the three orders of the Shaker Organization
Senior, Novitiate, Junior
Who was Aberle?
Man who talked about what constitues a society; necessary aspects; conditions that terminate a society

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