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Enlightenment vocab

Terms

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Wollstonecraft
Author of Vindication of the Rights of Women
Hume
Author of Treatise on Human Nature
Progress of the Human Mind
Book written by Condorcet which explained that humans had been through nine stages of history and were about to enter the tenth stage of perfection
Treatise on Toleration
Book written by Voltaire which defined natural rights and advocated religious toleration that England had
Watteau
Rococo artist who painted aristocrats and their pleasurable and civilized life; painted The Pilgrimage To Cythera
Adam Smith
Author of the Wealth of Nations
Social Contract
Book written by Rousseau which stated the harmonization of individual liberties with government authority
David
Painter who painted Oath of the Horatii which was very serious and placed emphasis on patriotism and honor
Wealth of Nations
Book written by Smith that described his three basic principles of economics (promoted free trade, labor = wealth, and laissez-faire)
Travels
Book written by Cook which recognized exotic highly civilized societies on his explorations
Locke
Philosopher that believed that a person could be molded by their enviroment and their experiences in that enviroment
Bayle
Protestant who criticised christian ideals and believed that there should be many religious instead of one main religion in a state; also wrote the Historical and Critical Dictionary
Richardson
Printer that created Pamela which was a serious novel in which virtue is rewarded
Quesnay
Leader of the Physiocrats
Voltaire
Philosopher that wrote Candide, Philosophic Letters on the English, Treatise on Toleration and created deism
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Book written by Gibbon which told that the growth of Christianity was the major reason for the collapse of Rome
Gibbon
Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
American Philosophical Society
Society in Philadelphia in which doctors, lawyers, and local officials gathered to discuss Enlightened ideas
Diderot
Edited the Encyclopedia
Neoclassicism
Style that recaptured the dignity and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome
Plurality of Worlds
Book about an intimate conversation with a lady aristocrat and her lover about cosmology; downplayed the seriousness of science and made it more lighthearted
Encyclopedia
Book written by Diderot which changed the general way of thinking
Rousseau
Author of the Social Contract and Emile who called the Father of Modern Democracy, Anarchy, and Communism
Hayden
Composer who created The Creation and The Seasons
Condorcet
Author of Progress of the Human Mind
Holbach
Author of System of Nature who was very open about his atheism
Mozart
Music prodigy that created the Mariiage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni
tabula rasa
a blank mind philosophy created by Locke
Fielding
Comical writer that wrote novels about people without anything survivng by their wits; History of Tom Jones
Bach
Composer who believed music was a means to worship God and lived a quiet life at a church; created the Mass in B Minor
Cook
Explorer who discovered Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia and wrote Travels
Philosophes
Group of intellectuals who who used reason and rationalism to change the world; wrote under false names
History of Tom Jones
Book written by Fielding which was about the adventures of a young scoundrel
Neumann
Architect who built the pilgrimage church of the 14 saints and the Bishhop's Palace; used light, bright colors, and elaborate detail
Rococo
Style that rejected strict geometrical patterns and emphasized curves, grace, and gentle action and was higly secular
System of Nature
Book written by Holbach that argued everything in the universe was made up of matter in motion, humans were just machines, and that God was just a product of the human mind and not necessary for leading a moral life
Astell
Author of A Serious Proposal to the Ladies which demanded the equality of education for women and Some Reflections Upon Marriage which demanded equality in marriage for women
Laissez-faire
Idea that government should not intefere in the economy (literally means let the people do as they choose)
Pamela
Book written by Richardson which focused on a servant girl and her master; virtue is rewarded in the novel
Fontenelle
The secratary of the French Royal Academy who wrote the Plurality of Worlds which converted science into easy-to-understand literature
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Book written by Wollstonecraft which explained that women should have equal rights with men in education, politics, and economics
Physiocrats
Group that believed in natural economic laws that governed society such as land is the source of wealth, supported supply and demand, and created laissez-faire
The Spirit of the Laws
Book written by Montesquieu which was a comparative study of republics, monarchies, and despotism
Montesquieu
Baron who wrote Persian Letters and Spirit of the Laws

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