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Psychology of Language Defs


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Cognitive Science
Interdisciplinary venture that draws upon the insights of psychologists, linguists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, and philosophers to study the mind and mental processes
Branch of science that studies the origin, structure, and use of language
Tacit Knowledge
Knowledge of how to perform various acts
Explicit Knowledge
Knowledge of the processes or mechanisms used in performing various acts.
the meanings of sentences and words
the grammatical arrangement of words within a sentence
concerns the system of sounds in a language
the social rules involved in language use
Garden Path Sentences
sentences that seem to be following a path to a predictable destination, but then force one to backtrack and reread the sentence to interpret it correctly
the study of relationships between language and social behavior
a language disorder due to brain damage
Wernicke's Aphasia
type of aphasia in which the semantic relationships between words are severely disrupted, indicating patient's semantic knowledge is impaired by brain damage
the study of the relationship between the brain and language
Closed class or function words
prepositions, conjuncions and so on that children may use to express themselves at first
Open class or content words
nouns, verbs, adjectives that children start to use as they grow older, eliminating closed class words
Eye voice span
the lag between eye position and voice when reading aloud, about six or seven words
a machine that presents visual stimuli for very brief periods of time
theory which states that experience, environmental contingencies, and models present in the immediate environment are what shape our behavior
Semantic differential
a tool for measuring the associative meaning of words by asking people to rate words on dimensions such as good/bad and strong/weak. developed by osgood and associates
Associative chain theory
theory that states that a sentence consists of a chain of associations between individual words in a sentence
a linguistic unit
Discontinuous constituent
a grammatical constituent in which some elements are separated (ex. picked up)
Longitudinal investigation
a method of studying child development in which a small number of children are studied over a period of years
philosophical tradition that emphasizes the use of argument and the belief that innate knowledge guides human behavior
philosophy that emphasizes the use of controlled observation and the belief that experience shapes human behavior
units of language larger thatn the sentence, such as paragraphs and stories
mental dictionary
Duality of Patterning
a feature of a communication system in which a small number of meaningless units can be combined into a large number of meaningful units
speech sounds
puff of air when making speech sounds
differences in sound that make a contribution to meaning, indicated by slashes
Distinctive feature
characteristic of a speech sound whose presence or absence distinguishes the sound from other sounds
the system of word forming elements and process in a language
the smallest unit of meaning in a language
free morpheme
stand alone
bound morpheme
aka grammatical morpheme, contribute to word meaning but are not words themselves
phrase structure
the hierarchical organization of sentences into phrases
a part of speech that quantifies or specifies a count noun
phrase structure rules
syntactic rules that specify the premissible sequences of constituents in a language
lexical insertion rules
rules that govern how lexical entries are inserted into a tree structure during the derivation of a sentence
the entire sequence of rules that produces a sentence
phrase structure ambiguity
a form of ambiguity in which a sentence has multiple meanings that may be revealed by regrouping the sentence constituents
Linguistic productivity or linguistic creativity
our ability to create and comprehend novel utterances
recursive rule
a rule that applies to its own output, such as a rule for self embedded sentences
American Sign Language
the form of sign language used in the US, it is a complete language distinct from oral languages
a feature of language in which there is no direct resemblance between words and their referents
characteristic of language in which words resemble their referents
in ASL, the distinction between wether the subject is the agent of the action and whether there is mutual interchange between the subject and object
within linguistic theory, an infinite set of well formed sentences
formal device with a finite set of rules that generates sentences in the language
observational adequacy
the extent to which a grammar can distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable strings of words
descriptive adequacy
the extent to which a grammar can provide structural description of a sentence
explanatory adequacy
the extent to which a grammar can explain the facts of language acquisition
deep structure
the underlying structure of a sentence that conveys the meaning of a sentence
surface structure
the superficial arrangement of constituents in a sentence, reflects the order in which the words are pronounced
deep structure ambiguity
a form of ambiguity in which a sentence may be derived from two different deep structures
transformational rules
rules that transform one phrase structure into another by adding, deleting, or moving grammatical constituents
particle movement transformation
a transformational rule that accounts for the movement of particles such as up around noun phrases
structure dependent
movement of constituents that is dependent upon the grammatical structure
passive transformation
transformational rule that transforms the deep structure of an active sentence into the passive voice
derivational theory of complexity
the theory that states that the psychological complexity of a sentence is directly proportional to the length of its derivation
lexical functional grammar
a grammar in which structural relationships are built into enriched lexical entries rather than with transformational rules
person doing the action
the one to whom the action is done
psychologically realistic grammar
bresnan's lexical functional grammar is also called this because it takes psychological or processing considerations into account
a grammatical feature that can be set to any of several values
null-subject parameter
deals with wether a language permits constructions that have no subject
sensory stores
take in the variety of colors, tones, tastes, and smells that we experience each day and retain them for a brief time in a raw, unanalyzed form
partial report technique
sperling's response to retention problem, participants only had to report a portion of the entire array
working memory
short term memory
grouping individual pieces of information into larger units
processing capacity
total amount of cognitive resources we may devote to a task, is assumed to be limited
permanent memory or long term memory
repository of our knowledge of the world
semantic memory
our organized knowledge of words, concepts, symbols, and objects
episodic memory
holds traces of events that are specific to a time and place
pattern recognition
occurs when information from one of the sensory stores is matched with information retrieved from permanent memory
serial processing
if a group of processes take place one at a time
parallel processing
if two or more of the processes take place simultaneously
parallel distributing process
model that views the mind as massivelly parallel, that is, as simultaneously processing a large amount of information
bottom up processing
that which proceeds from the lowest level to the highest level of processing in such a way that all of the lower levels of processing operate without influences from the higher levels
top down processing
states that information at the higher levels of processing ma influence processing at lower levels (ex. a sentence context may affect the identification of words within that sentence)
controlled process
an activity that requires processing capacity
automatic process
an activity that does not require processing capacity
the degree to which language processing is independent of general cognitive processes such as memory and reasoning. also refers to the degree in which an aspect of language is independent of other aspects of language
speech perception
the process of using acoustic information to arrive at a recognition of the speech sounds in a message
voice onset time (vot)
the period of time from when a consonant is released until the vocal cords vibrate
the decline in a response to a stimulus following repeated presentation of the stimulus
the recovery of the strength of a habituated response when a novel stimulus is presented
a structure in semantic memory that specifies the expected sequence of events
object permanence
children's understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be perceived
pretend play
stage in which a child may use an object in a playful and unconventional manner
deferred imitation
a child imitates a behavior seen some time before
senorimotor period
first of piagets periods of cognitive development, characterized by sensory and motor development and the inability to fully represent objects symbolically
preoperational period
the second of piagets periods of cognitive development
prosodic factors
factors such as intonation and stress that are superimposed on speech segments
the emphasis given to syllables in a sentence
the use of pitch to signify different meanings
intonational contour
the pitch pattern of a sentence
the speed at which speech is articulated
words that mean something different but are pronounced the same
prosodic factors are sometimes called this
study of speech sounds
articulatory phonetics
the more specific study of pronunciation of speech sounds
consonants articulated at the lips [b],[p]
consonants formed by placing the tounge against the alveolar ridge [d],[t]
consonants produced at the back of the mouth when the tounge is placed against the velum at the back of the mouth [g],[k]
stop consonants
consonants that obstruct the airflow completely for a period of time, then release it
produced by obstructing without completely stopping the airflow [f],[s]
produced by a stoplike closure followed by the slow release characteristic of fricatives [first sounds of Judge and CHurch]
the opening between the vocal cords
voiced speech sound
speech sound in which the vocal cords are vibrating during the production of a sound [b]
voiceless sound
the resulting speech sound when vocal cords are separated and air is not restricted at all [p]
acoustic phonetics
the examination of acoustic properties of speech sounds
sound spectogram
one of the most common ways of describing the acoustical energy of speech sounds, produced by presenting a sample of speech to a device known as sound spectograph
sound spectograph
device which consists of a set of filters that analyze the sound and then project it onto a moving belt of phosphor, producing a spectogram
a concentrated band of energy found in the sound spectograms of phonemes
formant transitions
the large rises and drops in formant frequency that occur over short durations of time
steady state
in between formant transitions, during which fomrant frequency is relatively stable
parallel transmission
refers to the fact that different phonemes in the same syllable are encoded into the speech signal simultaneously
context conditioned variation
describes the phenomenon that the exact spectographic appearance of a given phone is related to or conditioned by the speech context
manner of articulation
the manner in which syllables are produced
the phenomenon of producing more than one speech sound at a given time
auditory level
level of speech processing at which the signal is represented in terms of frequency, intensity, and temporal attributes, as with any auditory stimulus
phonetic level
speech processing level at which we identify individual phones by a combination of acoustic cues, such as formant transitions
phonological level
speech process level at which the phonetic segment is converted into a phoneme, and phonological rules are applied to the sound sequence
lack of invariance
the fact that there has been no one to one correspondence between acoustic cues and perceptual events
categorical perception
the inability to discriminate sounds within a phonemic category
binaural perception procedure
procedure in which two or more words are combined
duplex perception procedure
experimental technique in which formant transitions are presented to one ear and steady states to the other
phonetic trading relations
the notion that different acoustic cues have trade off effects on speech perception
rate normalization
the process of taking information about speech rate into consideration when identifying individual speech segments
speaker normalization
the process of taking the pitch of the speaker into account when using acoustic cues during speech perception
phonemic restoration
a top down process in which the listener uses the context to restore phonemes missing from the speech signal
mispronunciation detection
an experimental task in which subjects are presented auditorily with tapes that occasionally include mispronounced words. the subject's task is to detect the mispronunciations
an experimental task in which the subjects repeat what they hear
connectionist models
a model of cognitive/linguistic processes that assumes a vast interconnected network of information nodes in which each node influences and is influenced by a large number of adjacent nodes and parallel processing of information
internal lexicon
the representation of words in permanent memory
lexical access
the process by which we activate the meanings of words
tip of the tounge phenomenon
when we are not quite successful at retrieving a particular word but can remember something about how it sounds
syntactic category
part of our knowledge of the parts of speech to which words belong
a condition in which patients frequently omit closed class words and inflectional endings while preserving open class words somewhat better
inflectional morphemes
when a bound morpheme is added to a free morpheme to express grammatical contrasts in sentences (ex. cat/cats or jume/jumped)
derivational morphemes
when bound morphemes, added to free morphemes, create new words (ex. good/goodness)
the relationship between words and the world
the person, object, or event to which a linguistic expression refers
truth conditions
when we understand the meaning of the sentence, we grasp the conditions under which a sentence is said to be true
mental model
cognitive structure that represents some aspect of our environment
when two words or expressions mean the same thing
when two words exist at the same level of a hierarchy
the relationship of superordination within a hierarchy (ex. bird is a hypernym of sparrow)
opposite of hypernymy (ex. sparrow is a hyponym of bird)
the parts of an object reffered to by a word (ex. for the word chair both back and legs are meronyms)
word association test
a test in which a person is presented with a word and asked to respon with the first word that comes to mind
taxonomic relations
relations among words that indicate the position of words in a taxonomy
attributive relations
terms that identify attributes of a word (ex. comfortable, wooden, hard, white)
functional relations
words such as sitting and rest, which indicate what can be done with a chair
the objective or dictionary meaning of a word
the certain aspects of meaning beyond that which a word explicitly names or describes
cognitive economy
concept that since space available for storage of semantic information is limited, then it all should be stored in only one place in the network
semantic verification task
task in which a person is presented with a sentence An A is a B and is asked to determine as quickly as possible whether the sentence is true or false
intersection search
the process of retrieving information form a semantic network
category size effect
the fact that it takes longer to semantically verify a statement of the from and A is a B if B is a larger semantic category
typicality effect
items that are more typical of a given subordinate take less time to verify than atypical items in true statements
basic level terms
a term that refers to a category in which there are broad similarities among exemplars
spreading activation
the process by which one node in a semantic network, when active, activates related nodes
syntactic aspects of word knowledge
phonological aspects of word knowledge
represents each word in morton's model, specifies the word's various attributes
cohort model
a model of auditory word recognition in which listeners are assumed to develop a group of candidates, a word initial cohort, and then determine which member of that cohort corresponds to the presented word
recognition point
the point at which a word diverges from other possible words
word initial cohort
in auditory word recognition, the initial set of lexical candidates activated by the comprehender
phoneme monitoring
task in which subjects listen for a particular phoneme while comprehending a passage and being timed for how long it takes them to monitor the phoneme
lexical decision task
task in which a participant sees a string of letters and must rapidly decide whether the string is a word
semantic priming
occurs when a word presented earlier activates another, semantically related word
lexical ambiguity
form of ambiguity in which a single word may be interpreted to have more than one meaning

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