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Psychology Test 1

Terms

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MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scans the body and reconstructs an image. great for distinguishing soft tissue (brain) from skeletal structures
rods
visual receptors responsible for vision at night or in the dark. 120 million in each eyes
retinal disparity
eyes do not see the same thing, ties in to depth perception
placebo
you fake out the participants by giving them a fake form of what the experimental group is getting so they THINK they are getting the same treatment
Accommodation
process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far on objects
efferent neurons
from the brain to the outside of the body
size-distance relationship
farther objects seem larger although they are the same size as objects close by. optical illusion with the turtle
optical illusions
fool the size and shape constancy
random assignment
randomly assigning participants to a experimental or control group to balance out any pre-existing differences
absolute refractory period
the short period after a neuron fires in which it cannot be fired again by any stimulus no matter how strong
inter neurons
signaling or communication from one part of the brain to another
Cones
receptors that and closer to the center of the eye (fovea) for color and vision in light 6 million
Weber's Law
for any sense, the size of a JND is proportional to the size of the original nstimulus
Feature Detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus (ie shape, angle, movement)
Ganzfield
german for "total field" meaning everything you see is the same
Gestalt Principal of proximity
group nearby figures together
subliminal stimuli
below threshold stimuli
Nysagamus
eyes are always shaking so receptors don't become fatigued
paleomammalian brain
superior to the reptilian brain, controls emotions, sexdrive, smell
hypothalamus
located in the limbic system, performs specific body maintenance duties (hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior) helps govern endocrine system, linked to emotions (pleasure)
Lens
Behind the pupil, focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina
amygdala
located in the limbic system, influences aggression and fear.
dependent variable
variable that is dependent on the wiggled variable
lymbic system
a "doughnut" shaped system at the border (limbus) of the brain's older parts and the cerebral hemispheres
Retina
Light responsive inner-surface containing rods and cones.
Wavelength
the length of a wave from a certain point to a corresponding point such as electromagnetic radiation and sound reverberation
ganglion cells
cells involved in color vision and paring of colors. American flag demonstration
corpus callosum
axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
synapse
junction (gap) between axon of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body
determinants of speed
diameter, length, myelin sheath
lightness constancy
the lightness of the object remains relatively constant despite light changes around the object
Hypothesis
A testable prediction- implied by a theory
brightness (Intensity)
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, determined by the amplitude
Axon
extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers. sometimes encased with myelin
neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Gestalt Principal of continuity
perception of smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
action potential
neural impulse that travels down an axon
medulla
base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing. reptilian brain
double-blind
researchers and participants are both blind to who receives the real treatment and who gets the placebo
hue
the color of light determined by the wavelength
Experimental Condition
the condition being tested and compared to the standard or control condition
basilar membrane
in the cochlea, a membrane that separates the 2 fluid filled tubes
Operational Definition
a statement of the procedures
reptilian brain
brain stem portion, primitive and regulating area
accommodation
lens becomes thicker (close) or thinner (farther) based on distance
Color Blindness
Condition in which one is missing one or more of the 3 receptors (dichromat, monochromat)
shape constancy
although the image may change, our brain knows that the shape stays the same
hindsight bias
i knew it all along phenomenon. something seems obvious that it was going to happen after it occurs
Dendrite
Branching extensions of a neuron that receive the messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
reticular formation
within the brainstem, network of neurons that controls arousal and sleeping/waking
all or none law
neurons either fire or they don't. they don't fire. neurons fire at the same strength despite stimulus strength
Iris
portion of the eye with pigmentation, surrounds the pupil
independent variable
the variable that is being evaluated or tested. The one being wiggled
Hawthorne Effect
When you observe people in an experiment (they know you are observing them) they change or do not act naturally
Fovea
Area of sharpest vision, surrounded by cones
relative refractory period
after absolute refractory period; a neuron can be stimulated only by a stronger stimulus.
cornea
tansparent layer around eye, that provides protection and bends light to provide focus
Theory
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events(an idea used to explain some phenomena)
Control Condition
being compared to the experimental condition. the one not being manipulated, the standard
psychophysics
study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and psychological experience of them
Cell Body
Connected to the dendrites and is the cell's life support center
Difference Threshold (just noticeable difference)
minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time- amount that can be barely or not at all noticed
pain
dependent on number of neurons firing and how frequently each is fired; also bradykinin (painful chemicals)
correlation
when one trait or behavior is said to accompany or compliment another
autokinetic effect
"self movement" effect
afterimages
Images continue to appear after they a gone due to images persisting upon the retina
afferent sensory
outside of the brain sensory that travels (sends signals) to the brain
Frequency
The intensity of a given wave due to number of wavelengths
trichromatic theory
Color vision based on 3 classes of cone recptors (RGB)
pupil
a small adjustable opening surrounded by the iris
endorphins
"morphine within", natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
relative motion (motion parallax)
used in depth perception, ie pigeons... objects in the foreground move more than objects in the background
size constancy
our brain knows that the size of an object stays constant despite distance and size on the retina
Figure-ground
ability to separate elements based upon contrast
myelin sheath
dictates the speed of neurosignals. insulating layer around peripheral neurons. formed by schwann cells
amplitude
The height of a wave from one point to another, determines intensity
cerebral cortex
ultimate control and information-processing center, covers the cerebral hemispheres
middle-ear
area between the eardrum and the cochlea
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
hair cells
within the cochlea, respond to sound with vibration and produces and electric signal
Gestalt Principal of similarity
group similar figures together
neomammalian brain
posterior of the head, adjacent to paleomammalian, reasoning area of the brian....divided into the neocortical left and neocortical right
Visual Purple
Makes it easier to see at night, wears down with age
Blind Spot
Area of worst vision where the optic nerve enters the eye
common fate
things that move together are perceived as a unit

Deck Info

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