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A&P Chapter 19


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What are the fluids that the cells of the body are serviced by?
~Interstitial Fluid
What is blood compsed of?
Plasma and a variety of cells
What does blood transport?
Nutrients and wastes
What does the interstitial fliud do?
Bathes the cells of the body
How does nutrients and oxygen get into the interstitial fluid and then into the cells?
How do wastes move?
In the reverse direction
Hemoatology is the study of what?
Blood and blood disorders
What are the functions of blood?
What does the blood transport?
~Metabolic wastes
How does blood help regulate pH?
Through buffers
What does blood help regulate in regards to heat?
Body temperature
What does blood have for coolant?
The coolant properties of water
What dumps heat?
Vasodilatation of surface vessels
Blood helps regulate water content of cells by interations of what?
Dissolved ions and proteins
Name two differences between blood and water in regards to viscosity and flow rate.
Blood is more viscous than water and flows more slowly than water
What is the temperature of blood?
100.4 degrees F
What is the normal pH of blood?
7.4 (7.35 - 7.45)
What percentage of body weight is blood?
What is the normal blood volume in male and females?
~5 to 6 liters in an average male
~4 to 5 liters in an average female
What maintains constant blood volume and osmotic pressure?
Hormonal negative feedback
How is blood taken in venipuncture?
Sample taken from median cubital vein with a hypodermic needle and syringe
Why do you stick an artery?
~Less pressure
~Closer to surface
What is the common technique for diabetics to monitor daily blood sugar?
Finger or heel stick
How is blood taken in infants?
Finger or heel stick
What are the components of blood?
How much of blood is plasma and how much is cells?
~55% plasma
~45% cells
Name the different cells are there percentages?
~99% RBCs
~<1% WBCs and plasma
Blood plasma is mainly what?
Over 90% water
What percentage is plasma proteins in plasma?
7% plasma proteins
Where is plasma created
In the liver
Where is the plasma confined to?
What maintains blood osmotic pressure?
Name the formed eements of blood.
~Red blood cells
~White blood cells
What are erythrocytes?
Red blood cells
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
Name the granular leukocytes.
Name the agranular leukocytes.
Name the lymphocytes.
~Natural Killer cells
What are special cell fragments?
What is hematocrit?
~Blood sampling
~Percentage of blood occupied by cells
What is the normal range for Males and Females for hematocrit?
~Male: 40% - 54% (average 46%)
~Female: 38% - 46% (average 42%)
What is anemia?
Not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin
What does anemia cause?
Fatigue due to a lack of oxygen
What is polycythemia?
Too many RBCs (over 65%)
What causes polycythemia?
Dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes
What is blood doping?
Injecting previously stored RBC's before an athletic event
How does blood doping work?
There are more cells available to deliver oxygen to tissues
What are the dangers associated with blood doping?
~Increases blood vicosity
~Forces heart to work harder
Who banned blood doping?
Olympic committee
How long to RBCs live?
Die within hours, days or weeks
What is continually being replaced?
Most blood cell types
The pricess of blood cell formation is what?
Hamatopoiesis or Hemopoiesis
(Occurs in the kidney)
In the embryo where does blood cell formation occur?
~Yolk sac
~Lymph nodes
~Red bone marrow
In an adult where does blood cell formation occur?
Occurs only in red marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull, and pelvis and ends of long bones (sponge bones)
What protein gives blood its red color?
What is hemoglobin?
oxygen-carrying protein
How much of the cell's weight is the hemoglobin?
What is the shape and size of a red blood cell?
Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter
What does the flexible shape allow for in the red blood rells?
Passage through narrow passages
What does the RBC not have?
No nucleus or other organelles
What can't the RBC do?
No cell division or mitochondrial ATP formation
What is the normal RBC count in males and females?
~Males: 5.4 million/drop
~Females: 4.8 million/drop
How many RBCs enter circulation per second?
2 million/second
What does the globin protein contain?
4 polypeptide chains
What is attached to each polypeptide chain?
One heme pigment
What does each heme contain?
An iron ion (Fe+2) than can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule
How long does a RBC live?
Only 120 days
Why do RBCs wear out?
From bending to fit through capillaries
Why is repair not possible with the RBC?
Due to the lack of organelles
How are worn out cells removed?
Fixed macrophages in spleen and liver
What is recycled?
Breakdown products
What is tissue hypoxia?
Cells not getting enough O2
Where in the World can tissue hypoxia happen?
High altitude since air has less O2
What is the kidney response to hypoxia?
~Release erythropoietin
~Speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes
What doe all WBCs have?
A nucleus
What do all WBCs not have?
What is granular or agranular classification based on?
Presence of cytoplasmic granules made visible by staining
Neutrophils make up how much of circulating WBCs?
60% - 70%
Eosinophils make up how much of circulating WBCs?
2% - 4%
Basophils make up how much of circulating WBCs?
Less than 1%
What do basophils look like?
Large, dark purple, variable-sized granules stain with basic dyes
What do the granules do to the basophils nucleus?
Obscure the nucleus
What does the basophils nuclei look like?
Irregular, s-shaped, bilobed
How big are the basophils?
Diameter is 8 to 10 microns
What does the eosinophils nucleus look like?
Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by a thin strand
What do the eosinophils granules look like?
~Large, uniform-sized
~Stain orange-red with acidic dyes
What do the granules not do to the eosinophils?
Obsure nucleus
How big is an eosinophil?
Diameter is 10 to 12 microns
What does a lymphocyte nucleus look like?
Dark, oval to round
What is sky blue in color in the lympocyte?
What is the size of small and large lymphocytes?
~Small: 6 - 9 microns in diameter
~Large: 10 - 14 microns in diameter
WHat increases in number during viral infections?
What percentage of circulating WBCs are lymphocytes?
20% - 25%
What is the shape of the nucleus of the monocyte?
Kidney or horse-shoe shaped
What is the largest WBC in the circulating blood?
Where does the monocyte spend most of its time?
Tissues (does not remain in blood long before migrating to the tissues)
Where do wandering groups of monocytes gather?
At sites of infection
How big is a monocyte?
Diameter is 12 - 20 microns
What color is the cytoplasm in a monocyte?
Foamy blue-gray
What percentage is the monocyte in the circulating WBC?
3% to 8%
WBC are what compared to RBC in numbers?
Less numerous
How many WBC are there in a single drop of blood
5,000 to 10,000 cells
What is the ratio for WBC to RBC
1 WBC for every 700 RBC
What leukocytosis?
A high white blood cell count
What causes leukocytosis?
Microbes, strenuous exercise, anesthesia or surgery
What is leukopenia?
Low white blood cell count
What causes leukopenia?
Radiation, shock or chemotherapy
How much to WBC population is in curculating blood at any given time?
Only 2% of total WBC population
Where is 98% of the WBC population?
In the lymphatic fluid, skin, lungs, lymph nodes, and spleen
What do WBCs roll along?
What do WBCs do in the endothelium?
Stick to it and squeeze between cells
What helps WBCs to stick to endothelium?
Adhesion molecules (selectins)
What do neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize?
Bacteria and debris
Which WBC has the fastest response to bacteria?
Neutrophils have direct actions against what?
What to neutrophils release which destroy/digest bacteria?
What protein does neutrophils release?
Defensin proteins
What do defensin proteins do?
act like antibiotics and poke holes in bacterial cell walls destroying them
What are bleach like strong chemicals that destroy bacteria and released by neutrophils?
Strong oxidants
Explain the response of the monocyte.
Take long to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbers
What do monocytes do?
Destroy microbes and clean up dead tissue following an infection
What are basophils involved in?
Inflammatory and allergy reactions
How do basophils get to the site?
Leave capillaries and ener connective tissue as mast cells
What do basophils release?
Heparin, histamine and serotonin
What do basophils do?
Heighten the inflammatory response and account for hypersensitivity reaction
How do eosinophils get to a site?
Leave capillaries to ener tissue fluid
What does eosinophil release?
What does the enzyme histaminase do?
Breaks down histamine
What do eosinophils attack?
Parasitic worms
What does the eosinophil slow down?
Slows down inflammation caused by basophils
What do the eosinophils phagocytize?
Antibody-anitgen complexes
What do the B-cells destroy?
Bacteria and their toxins
What do B-cells turn into?
Turn into plasma cells that produce antibodies
What do T-cells do?
Attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells, and some bacteria
What cells are memory cells for all the diseases that we have ever had?
B-cells and T-cells
What do natural killer cells attack?
Attack many different microbes and some tumor cells
Natural killer cells destroy foreign invaders by what?
Direct attack
What is the differential WBC count?
Dection of changes in numbers of circulating WBCs (percentages of each type)
What does the DWBC indicate?
Infection, poisoning, leukemia, chemotherapy, parasites or allergy reaction
If the neutrophil count is up what does that indicate?
Bacterial Infection
If the lymphocyte count is up what does that indicate?
Viral Infection
If the monocyte count is up what does that indicate?
Fungal or viral infection
If the eosinophil count is up what does that indicate?
Parasite or allergy reaction
If the basophil count is up what does that indicate?
Allergy reaction or hypothyriod
What is a bone marrow transplant?
Intravenous transfer of healthy bone marrow
How is sick bone marrow destroyed?
With radiation and chemotherapy
How is the donor matched?
Donor matches surface antigen on WBC
How is reseeding of bone marrow done?
Samples of donor marrow are put into the patient's vein
What does success depend on in bone marrow transplants?
Histocompatibility of donor and recipient
Bone marrow is used in the treatment of what?
Leukemia, sickle-cell, breast ovarian or testicular cancer, lymphoma, or aplastic anemia
What is the shape and size of a platelet?
Disc-shaped, 2-4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
What is the normal platelet count in a drop of blood?
150,000-400,000 per drop of blood
Where are the platlets formed?
In the bone marrow
What is the life span of platlets?
5 to 9 days in the bloodstream
How are aged platlets removed?
Removed by fixed macrophages in liver and spleen
What does a CBC screen for?
Anemia and infection
What is invalved in a CBC?
Total RBC, WBC and platlets counts, differential WBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin measurements
What is the normal hemoglobin range?
~Infants: 14 to 20g/100mL of blood
~Adult Females:12 to 16g/100mL of blood
~Adult Males:13.5 to 18g/100mL of blood
What is hemostasis?
stoppage of bleeding in a quick and localized fashion when blood vesels are damaged
What does hemostasis prevent?

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