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CSCI terms


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computer network
a group of computers linked by wired or wireless technology to share data and resources.
The Web
a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over the Internet. Which means that the Web or Internet is just one very large network.
a term that is used to refer to entities that exist largely within computer networks.
the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices.
Technological convergence
a process by which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product.
digital divide
gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not
multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions.
whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system
result produced by a computer
manipulation of data
is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output
is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing (hard drive, cd, thumbdrive).
a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium.
computer program or software
The series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks
Application software
is a set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task.
system software
help the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently
personal computer
a microprocessor- based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual
An ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network, or A powerful desktop computer used for highperformance tasks. Chapter
Data representation
refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted.
Analog devices
work with continuous data
the process of converting analog data into digital format
integrated circuit
(computer chip) is a superthin slice of semi-conducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements
machine language
The list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set
op code
(operation code) command word for an operation
for an instruction it specifies the data (or the address of the data) for the operation
(Arithmetic Logic Unit) - the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations.
The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed
control unit
Part of the microprocessor that fetches each instruction
instruction cycle
the process in which a computer executes a single instruction.
authentication protocol
any method that confirms a person’s identity using something the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the person is
an integrated circuit that is designed to process instructions
Front side bus(FSB)
circuitry that transports data to and from the microprocessor
Microprocessor clock
sets the pace for executing instructions
the smallest unit of time in a microprocessor
high speed memory that allows the microprocessor to access data more rapidly
Serial processing
an instruction cannot be executed until the previous one has finished.
a processor can start to execute an instruction before the previous one is finished
parallel processing
more than one instruction is executed at the same time
dual core processor
chip that contains two microprocessors
hyper-threading technology (HTT)
processor can allow a single processor to simulate two processors
a technique used to increase the speed of a processor
(Random Access Memory)a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system
(Read-only memory)a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine
storage medium
contains data (paper, DVD, CD, etc.)
storage device
records and retrieves data from a storage medium (Hard disk drives, CD drives and flash drives)
Access time
average time it takes a computer to locate data on the storage media and read it
Data transfer rate
the amount of data that can be moved per second from the storage medium to the computer
Storage capacity
the maximum amount of data that can be stored on a particular medium
storage density
the amount of data that can be stored in a particular area of the medium
optical storage
stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface (CDs & DvDs)
Basic Input Devices
Keyboard, Mouse, touch screen, etc.
CRT (cathode ray tube)
uses a bulky glass tube, like a standard television. Beams of electrons are sprayed toward the screen and activate individual dots of color that then form an image
LCD (liquid crystal display)
manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells. This technology is compact, lightweight and gives an easy to read display
Dot pitch
measures the image clarity, a smaller dp means a crisper image. (Dot pitch is actually the distance between pixels with the same color.)
Viewing angle width
how far off to the side you can still see the image.
Refresh rate
the speed the screen is repainted, when it is faster there is less flicker
Color depth
the number of colors a monitor can display
the number of horizontal and vertical pixels that a screen can display
expansion slot
a socket on the system board into which you can plug and expansion card
Expansion cards
small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities but are built for only one type of expansion slot
Computer software
the tool that gets anything done on a computer
computer program
made up of instructions that tell a computer how to carry out some task. These programs form the software that allows a computer to do specific tasks
productivity software
application software that can help people do their jobs more efficiently.(word processors, spreadsheets)
Utility software
kind of system software that is made to help monitor and configure many of the parts of your system, including the equipment, system software and application software
Device drivers
software that helps a peripheral device communicate with the computer
operating system
system software that controls all the activity in a computer system
Type of operating system. Handhelds are single-user
this OS allows a single computer (frequently a mainframe) to deal with input,output and processing requests from many users at the same time
Network (server)
provides communications and routing services to allow multiple computers to share data, software and peripheral devices.
memory leak
instructions or data from one programs' region end up in another programs' region
allows for multiple parts or threads to run at the same time
divides the work between all the processors
what the operating system uses to hold the data until the computer is ready for it
user interface
combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other
command line interface
you had to type memorized commands at a command prompt in order to run programs
GUI (graphical user interface)
allow you to use a mouse to click or double click on a menu option or icon to run programs
BIOS (basic input output system)
set of routines stored in readonly memory that enable a computer to start the operating system and to communicate with the various devices in the system, such as disk drives, keyboard, monitor, printer
developed in the late 1960's at Bell Labs
In 1991 Linus Torvalds developed it.
DOS (Disk Operating System)
first operating system that many (older:) people used. It had a command line interface and simple menus that were controlled by the arrow keys
PAN – personal area network
interconnection of personal digital devices withing a range of about 30 feet and without using wires
NAN – neighborhood area network
type of connection is within a limited range and usually spread over several buildings, like what is found in coffee shops and book stores
LAN – local area network
a connection between personal computers within a limited geographical area, most often a single building
MAN – metropolitan area network
public high-speed networks capable of voice and data transmission within a range of about 50 miles
WAN – wide area network
covers a large geographical area and usually have several smaller networks within it that might use different types of computer platforms and technologies. The Internet is the world's largest WAN
network interface card
networking circuitry needed to connect to a network
networked peripheral
any device that contains the network circuitry that allows it to connect directly to a network. Printers, scanners, and storage devices are examples
network device
any electronic device that broadcasts network data, boosts signals, or routes data
network server
a computer that provides services to other computers.
one of the other computers on the network
application server
runs application software for network workstations
file server
stores files and supplies them to workstations
print server
handles the jobs that are sent to network printers
Physical topology
arrangement of the the devices in a network
Star Topology
o o \ / o----X---o / \ o \ o
communications channel
a physical path or a frequency for signal transmissions
the transmission capacity of a communications channel
high bandwidth sytem
a set of rules for interacting and negotiating
communications protocol
a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another
a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network
circuit switching
makes a dedicated, private link between two phones for the length of the call
Packet switching
dividing a message into a number of packets which can be sent individually to their destination is more efficient use of the circuit
contains instructions about the data carried by the packet
Also called the body or data of a packet. This is the actual data that the packet is delivering to the destination
or footer, typically contains a couple of bits that tell the receiving device that it has reached the end of the packet
MAC (media access control)
a unique number assigned to a network interface card when it is made
IP (internet protocol)
a series of numbers used to identify a network device
network hub
a device that links two or more nodes of a wired network
network switch
a more sophisticated device that sends data only to the devices specified as the destination
network router
a device that can send data from one network to another
Internet backbone
a network of high-capacity communications links that provide the main routes for data traffic
TCP-Transmission Control Protocol
Creates connections and exchanges packets of data
IP-Internet Protocol
Provides devices with unique addresses
UDP-User Datagram Protocol
An alternative data transport to TCP used for DNS, Voice or IP and file sharing
HTTP-Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Exchanges information over the Web
FTP-File Transfer Protocol
Transfers files between local and remote host computers
POP-Post Office Protocol
Transfers mail from an e-mail server to a client in box
SMTP-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Transfers e-mail messages from client computers to an email server
VoIP-Voice over Internet Protocol
Transmits voice conversations over the Internet
IRC-Internet Relay Chat
Transmits text messages in real time between on-line users
Distributes files using scattered clients rather than a server
static/dynamic IP Adresses
computers that act as servers have static addresses while most others have dynamic addresses
Uniform resource locater
allows a computer to perform more than one type of service
the elapsed time it takes data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A
HTML Comment Tag
Aligning HTML to center

Title of my page

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information system
collects, stores, and processes data to provide useful, accurate, and timely information within the context of some organization
_____plan long-range goals, this is called________
Executive Managers, Strategic Planning
______figure out how to achieve long-range goals by setting incremental goals. These are goals for a year or less and is called____________
mid-level managers, tactical planning
______are responsible for the day-to-day activities including scheduling employees, ordering supplies and anything else necessary to make the job run smoothly. This is called______
Low-level managers, operational planning
structured problem
an ordinary, routine problem
semi-structured problem
less routine
unstructured problem
needs human intuition as the basis for coming up with a solution
Batch processing
the data was collected and held until the end of the day or pay period and then the entire batch was processed
Online processing
each transaction is processed as it is entered
Scheduled reports
monthly summaries have a fixed formant and are produced according to a preset timetable or schedule
Ad hoc reports
customized to supply specific information that isn't usually in the scheduled reports
summary report
A summary report might show total sales data for a quarter or a year or the past five years
exception report
contains information that is outside normal or acceptable ranges
decision support system (DSS)
helps people make decisions by directly manipulating the data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of a variety of scenarios
executive information system (EIS)
made to provide senior managers with information relevant to strategic management activities like setting policies, planning, and preparing budgets
decision model
a numerical representation of a realistic situation like cash-flow
neural network
uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information and learn.
Waterfall system
Planning phase Analysis phase Design phase Implementation phase Maintenance phase
Performance Information Economics Control Efficiency Service

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