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finals review for science


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In which tectonic setting (plate boundary) would you NOT expect to find volcanoes?
The dominant life forms of cenozoic?
How could you tell if the magma forming an igneous rock had been deep underground or at a shallow depth?
Size of crystals--big (cooled below)--small (cooled above)
Define esker
Long ridge of sediment by running water
how do the ages of rocks in the ocean basins vary
youngest--mid-ocean ridges;;older--the farther out
how is a subduction zone indicated
volcanoes ((No. & So. America))
Distinguish between mafic and felsic rocks
Mafic-low in silica, high in iron (dark colors);;Felsic- rich in silica (thick, sticky & light)
Name two planets that radiate more heat than they receive from the sun
Jupiter & Saturn
where are mafic lavas usually produced?
shield volcanoes in the ocean, ex. HI
Define outwash plain
deposited in front of glacier
What important elements are produced in a supernova
everything up to #92
what information about an earthquake can you get if you only have data from one seismograph station
How far away it happened & magnitude
Where is the largest volcano in the Solar System?_____the only other active volcano observed?____
Mars((Olympus Mons));Io((Saturn))
Name the four eras of earth history in order:
Define ablation
melting off greater than accumulating
define & give example of island arc
in the land on ocean ((Japan, Philippines))
We live in the ____ galaxy and the ______ cluster
Milky Way; Local Group
Define tsunami
huge tidal harbor wave
The most common family of minerals are the
Where is erosion likely to occur in a stream bed
outward elbow
at which type of boundary is crust destroyed
Give examples of replaced remains
petrified wood
Define lateral moraine
sediment deposited as a long ridge of till along valley of glacier
Rocks made of bits and pieces of other rocks are called
*clastic sedimentary
What is the cause of deep-focus earthquakes
subduction zone
the main mineral in beach sand is
where would find a subduction zone
ocean trench
Describe a cinder cone & give an example
small volcano composed of pyroclastic materials, short, steep;;Sunset Crater
Evidence of pangea includes
fossil evidence, fit of continents, climate evidence, rock evidence
Why is the Precambrian so difficult to interpret?
Not much is revealed at the surface, metamorphism over a long time
Scientists have studied the deep interior of the Earth primarily by use of
Define barchans
crescent-shaped w/i tips pointing downward sand dunes
Ultimate fate of the most massive stars is to become:
black hole
the most abundant elements in the universe are:
hydrogen & helium
How is conglomerate
pebbles, rocks, sand cemented
When stars begin to run out of hyrdorgen fuel they may become:
planetary or red giants
A galaxy is a:
cluster of stars, rotating; solar system; bounded by gravity
To what revolutionary discovery did oceanographers make a key contribution?
plate tectonics
The largest intrusive igneous bodies are
How is shale formed?
mudd cemented
The energy source for stars is:
thermonuclear fusion
Define saltation
bouncing along--movement
Define terminal moraine
outermost end moraine (recessional)
Most obvious surface feature on Mercury
Pulsars (neutron stars) were originally detected because they emit:
pulses of radio signals
The first four planets are classified as______ while the next four are classified as______
what type of boundary is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
How were the HI islands formed
hot spot, mantle plumes
there are about how many galaxies in the universe
125 billion
slide past one another ((San Andreas Fault))
Describe lithosphere
the outer, rigid part of Earth consisting of the upper mantle, oceanic crust, and contintenal crust (60-100mi)
Planet most similar to Earth in size and density:
what happens when ocean crust converges with continental curst
the ocean crust will go under the continental crust
Why are Martian seasons about twice as long as Earth seasons?
Martian year 2x our years
How do you determine hardness
Moh's scale of hardness; scratch
How fast do plates move
5cm per year
Define weathering
physical & chemical breakdown of materials of Earth's crust by interaction w/atmosphere
What is required for a fossil to be an index fossil?
*easily identified;*geographically widespread;*existing for a rather short geologic time
How do you determine streak
scratch it onto a streak plate
Describe asthenosphere
the part of the upper mantle over which lithospheric plates move( 2-400km deep)
oceanic plate goes under continental, trench ((Andes))
Describe a composite cone & give an example
Slopes steeply near the summit & more gently near the base, tall;;Vesuvius, Mt. Hood
Define iceberg
broken off piece of ice from a glacier in water
Distinguish between a continental and an alpine glacier
continental--a large glacier covering a vast area and unconfined by topography;;alpine--moves down a valley--flows downhill underweight
How is a rock different from a mineral?
multiple minerals
which of the four main branches of Earth Science would be most interested in studying fossils?
how do temperatures vary inside the sun?
Corona- 3 millionC, photospher-6000C, core-20 milC;steadily
Limestone metamorphone into
The two forces which keep a star stable are:
radiation and gravity
the denest form of normal matter is
neutron star
Define erosion
removal of weathered materials from its source area
Define permeability
water flows through rock
Define spring
where groundwater intersects section of Earth
how is the location of an epicenter determined
3 seismograph stations, S-P lag, time-travel graph
Define drumlin
an elongate hill of till formed by the movement of a continental glacier
how would you recognize a mature stream
winding with many bends & curves & small flood plains, natural levees
Define kettle
Circular to oval depression buried block of ice
Distinguish between relative and absolute time
relative: involves events in their proper chronological sequence; absolute: gives specific dates for events
Why are fossils rarely found in Precambrian?
Because the only form of lie were single-celled organisms which are difficult to fossilize; metamorphism
Stars are born in a:
at which type of boundary is new crust produced
How do we know what the sruface of Venus looks like
scientists sent spacecraft that produced detailed maps of Venus by radar mapping. Venus--volcanoes, plateaus, mts, hot! CO2, sulfide
What determines the position of a star on the Hertzprung-Russell Diagram
temp & brightness; the mass of the star
What is a crystal?
A geometric solid resulting from the orderly addition of atoms to a mineral
the steps in the death of our sun are:
pulsates, collapses, more heat is generated, outer envelope expands & star cools--red giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf, black dwarf
The Precambrian represents about ____ of the Earth's history
Meteors on Mercury?
No--no atmosphere.
How are glacial deposits recognized?
Glacial Drift-2 types-till & outwash (recessional moraine, end moraine, lateral moraine, drumins) angular & sharp-edged
Mechanical weathering is ____.
breaking rock into smaller pieces without change
At _______ degrees, _____(name of process) begins and a star is born
20 million; thermonuclear fusion
Define hanging valley
tributary glacial valley--floor--higher than main glacial valley
which category of volcano is the most dangerous
stratovolcano b/c unpredictable
Distinguish between igenous and metamorphic rocks
Igneous--cooling & crystallization of magma/lava;;Metmorphic--rock altered by heat/pressure
Define horn
pyramidal peak by headward erosion of cirques
Define exfoliation
granite--pressure release--peel off, cracks into rounded layers
Magma is ____ while lava is ______
molten rock (intrusive); at the surface (extrusive)
Give examples of indirect(trace)
tracks, trails, burrows
Where will sidecutting occur in a stream bed
flattens out--meander sideways
The dominant life forms of the Paleozoic era?
marine life
How is sandstone formed?
sand grains cemented
The divisions of geologic time are based on
the period ot time that the dominant species lives significant changes in life forms or Earth events
What is the role of a transform fault in plate movement
side by side motion
what happens in a subduction zone
ocean plate slides beneath another plate
how would you recognize an old age stream
very winding, very meadnering, oxbow lakes, massive flood planes
Define & give example of a volcanic arc
chain of volcanoes above a subduction zone ((Cascades))
Describe a shield volcano & give an example of each
a large, dome-shaped volcano w/a low rounded profile, built up mostly of overlapping basaltic lava flows; Kilauea
Where will downcutting occur in a stream bed
upper end of the stream (head)
why do buildings collapse during earthquakes
1)type of foundation built-on 2)ground-shaking
Define firn
halfway between ice
Give examples of original remains
body fossils; bones, teeth, frozen, mummies
Define cirque
A steep-walled, bowl-shaped depression at a glaical valley
Where is deposition likely to occur in a stream bed
inward elbow
Least dense planet
The dominant life forms of the Mesozoic
Reptiles & dinosaurs
Planet which has seasonally varying ice caps:
Most massive planet
Describe the dimesnions of a neutron star
It is a dead collapsed star; dense; 6-10 mi; spinning
Shale metamorphose into
Define lahar
Volcanic mudflow w/volcanic ash, w/snow covered volcanoes
at which type of boundary is crust neither created nor destroyed
A mineral must meet what conditions?
*solid;*inorganic;*crystalline;*naturally occuring;*definite chemical composition
what layer allows the lithosphere to move
Planet whose axis is tipped past horizontal
What is a glacier
a large body of moving ice; land bound
How would you recognize a youthful stream
straight mostly, few bends & curves, v-shaped canyons, rapids, waterfalls
Intrusive igneous bodies which cut across rock layers are called _____ which are those which squeeze in between layers are called
dikes; sills
Describe Alfred Wegener's hypothesis
The coninents drifted & continental crust break through ocean floor
Define aquiclude
water can't pass through
what is a sunspot?
dark, cooler, disturbances on the sun's surface, magnetic, pairs of groups
The Precambrian began about _____ years ago and ended with the ________
4.5 billion;beginning of the Paleozoic
Distinguish between a closed and an open universe
closed- has enough matter for there to be slow halt & reverse into expansion; open-expands forever
What happens at convergent boundaries
Define arete
narrow ridge separated by 2 glacial valleys
Define water table
level of groundwater--surface
one subduction plate goes under the other
Give examples of molds/casts:
shells, footprints
Granite metamorphose into
Examples of mechanical weathering include
exfoliation, root wedging, frost wedging & abrasion
what type of volcanic event destroyed Pompeii
Define artesian
pressure pushes upward
Define mass wasting
the downslope movement of rock, sediment, or soil under the influence of gravity
Define porosity
percentage of space in rock
Chemical weathering is _______, such as _____
decomposition of rocks by chemicals; oxidation, hydrolosis, hydration, carbonation
what is the most abundant gas associated with volcanic activity
carbon dioxide
What is the corona
outmost visible layer of the sun
Define aquifer
layer of rock--water

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