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Critical thinking final

So I am going for keywords here. We know that the test is going to be written and if you can get in the keywords the rest of the sentence almost doesn't matter. Also if you're unsure circle both


undefined, object
copy deck
value assumptions
how the world should be
necessary condition
state of affairs that must be present to create the effect
method of difference
the cause is found by noting that the only difference between the effect happening or not is whether one element is present
common rationalizations
necessary=ethical; legal+permissible=proper; just doing it for you; fight fire with fire; doesn't hurt anyone; everybody does it; i've got it coming; i can still be objective
evidence to support claim
fairness doctrine
broad casters allowed airtime for both sides of the issue; discontinued in 1987
link between reason and claim (can contain reality and value assumptions in the same arguement
sample size in poll
reasoning by analogy
something new explained with something familiar; support claim because they have worked in other situations
universal ethical principals
respect for others is self evident
close connection between 2 events
can involve deductive reasoning that is untrue and unproven, but it is often logically valid
problem solution
convince audience they should face a problem and then give them a solution
3 research questions
characteristic of interest (what); target group (who); sample (whom to study)
value prioritization
the process of choosing the most important value ie drug legalization vs cultural standards
blind study
participants not told what group they are in
two step flow
experts gather info through media and pass it on to us
credibility or reputation of the speaker
inductive reasoning
sufficient condition
state of affairs that automatically leads to effect
statistical generalizations
conclusions drawn from statistical evidence that reflects what can generally be expected
ideas implied but not stated directly
individual liberty
classifying according to common traits
higher principles test
not stooping to someone elses level of bad decision making
humes 3 conditions for cause and effect
cause preceeds effect; cause and effect close in time; history that cause always preceeds effect
new cases test
it is only right for me to do it if it is right for everyone to do it
subliminal messages
information that connot be perceived by the conscious mind but is registered unconsciously
independent variable
special treatment given to the experimental group
one event leads absolutely to another event
a topic with controversy
sound bite
brief selection of a longer speech usually give out of context
double blind study
participants nor the experimenters are aware of who is in what group
ideals or standards IE justice, mercy
refutative design
raises doubt about damages or even destroys and opposing position by pointing out its weaknesses
sample size in controlled study
valid arguement
correct deductive reasoning form has been followed
faulty analogy
apples to oranges
motivated sequence
call to action
role exchange test
put yourself in someone elses shoes
general happiness
the use of emotional appeal to support conclusion
key points
must be supported with evidence (these are your main topics)
using more exciting stories over ones that are more newsworthy
claim or conclusion
your stand on an issue
deductive arguement with conclusion based on two premises
a sample that represents the target population accurately
5 sample evaluation must haves
sample large enough; sample representative in all characteristics and in proportion; all characteristics considered; are the questions biases; credibility of polling org
journalist focus on
who what when where how and why
false cause
because one event followed another the first event made the second happen
real values
can consistenly act upon
two main reasoning in error
inadequate reasonings and statements the mislead or distract
a strong inductive arguement provides
support for claim
universal consequence test
if the action is not morally acceptable in another case, then it is not acceptable in the first situation
immediate cause
preceded by other factors leading up to the effect
method of agreement
one factor is always present when the effect occurs
inductive generalizations
look at evidence and draw conclusions that are not certain, but likely
synonym for a reporter
inadequate reasoning
seem logical but don't support the claim
review of ideas
reinforcement of keypoints; helps audience
publics perceptions of or its likeability for plicticians products celebrities ect
deductive reasoning
what is certain
multiple cases
combination of causes leading to a specific effect
allow for a smooth flow of ideas in a speech; lets the listener know where you are and where you are going
religious values
love of god and neighbor
statement of key points which immediately follow the thesis statement
logical organization and credible content ie well organized speech
ideal values
reality assumptions
how the world is based on experience
subliminal message
brand names; use of music colors, movements, and powerful images
gestalt principle
ourminds strive toward congruence and completion; if a message is incomplete we fill in the details
value assumptions are important because
they need to be understood between both parties in order to solve a conflict ie death penalty
thesis statement
should appear immediately after the introduction of the speech
critical thinker
someone who uses specific criteria to evaluate reasoning, to form a positions and to make decisions
ideas we take for granted

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