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Cognitive Psych Final

final exam quiz

Terms

undefined, object
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Large size
ame size above meduim effect as small is below the medium effect
converging operations
use of several research approaches to solve a single problem
Test of genuisness
test-retest score of colors to words
how does peer review work?
editor sends to experts in a field to evaluate the literature and introduction, research design, statistical analysis, logic of conclusions, if the study is worthwhile
types of internet studies
stanly milgram 6 deg of seperation, social interations, polls, surverys
experimental condition group
group that exposes participants to the treatment
control condition group
roup that serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Fechners Law
S = K Log R (most importiant law in psychology)
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
weak synesthesia
cross modality experiances many of us experiance e.g. mist, floating patches, patterend overlay
disadvantages of internet studies
selection bias exists with study
advantages of internet studies
lots of subjects in studies, are fast and cheap
testing of synesthetes
where syn taste could be induce by TOT phenominon
medium size
visible to the naked eye
Kiki
the pointy shape by kohler
neonates are synesthetes
auditory responses results in response in auditory and visual cortex
Signal detection theory (basic idea)
took a simple do you see this and made it into a rigerous science
difference threshold
smallest change in a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time
random sample
each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
Webers Law
Delta I over I = a constant (∆ I ∕ I = Constant)
Synesthesia
A sensory experience elicited by a stimulus in a different sense modality
overall effect size
used in a meta analysis to find the effect of multiple studies
hits (signal detection theory)
simple yes and no choices
uses of meta analysis
measures variability in effect size across studies, can make discoveries about prior research, seach for types of studies that yield different effect sizes
null hypothesis
there is no difference between groups, or no relations among variables
segregation test
the test with the red twos that are not red but are hidden among different numbers
absolute threshold
minimum enery a person can detect 50% of the time uses catch trails as controls
small size
noticibly smaller than medium but not trivial
Peer review journals
a periodical that uses researcher to judge whether another researches work is worth publishing
catch trials
trials with no stimuli
what makes a good researcher
number of publications in peer review journal, number of times cited by other researchers and quality of the journals work appears in
advantages of peer review
helps prevent horribly done research from getting into the literature
ways around problems with meta analysis
setting criteria of what will be included before the analysis (eg control groups, drugs: double blind studies) and weigh the effect of the outcome by the number of subjects
francis Galton research
found that colored hearing is the most common form, the color of word is idiosyncratic, synthetes remember they have always had this condition, images seen in reality, 95% are female
Learned association
synthesetes dont remeber learning it, relative including twins have different word color assocaitions
Hypothesis
a testable prediction often implied by a theory
Noise curve
noise + signal curve and criterion resposes to predict hits misses and correct rejections
Difference threshold
smallest change in a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time
disadvantage of demonstration
often, little scientific rigor
problems of learned association
why more females than males with this theory of synthesesia
advantages of within subjects design
a near perfect comparison
TPO, angular gyrus
parts of brain that are involved in synesthetic colors
1:250,000 to 1:2,000
estimates of the prevelence of synesthesia
P <.05
less thana 5% chance the results are due to chance should happen in 1 and every 20 experiments
disadvantages of peer review
may prevent importiant, unexpected research from being published
mean treatment effect size
the mean treatment group minus the mean of the control group divided by the standard deviation of the control group
meta analysis
method for combining the result of many research studies and analyzing them statistically as if on set of data
Lexical gustatory synesthesia
synesthetes whom taste words not see them uber rare
quasi experiment
- Studies of participants whove been exposed to conditions of intenterest to the real world.
Problems of within subjects design
can be contaminated with first condition, somtimes impossible
how well do synesthetes test
100% usually however much lower if using a memory
researchers of Lexical Gustatory Synesthesia
Julia Simner, Jamie Ward; University of Edinburgh Dept of Psychology
how do the two laws differ (webers v. fechners)
Webers law contains physical variables, fechners contains physical and mental variables
strong synesthetes
the synthetes we have looked in class are these
Problems with researchers
multiple authors, citing yourself, amount of research funding, lots of mediocer or uninteresting reserach gets published
Problems of estimates (synethesia)
how to define it, Often a small sample size, often poor sampling technique
basic method for finding absolute threshold
calculating the number of hairs on the back of ones hand that need to be stimulated in order to feel a sensation
between subjects design
each subject serves in only one condition
psychophysics
the study of the relationship b/w physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
problems of statistical significance
does not necessarily mean that a finding is important
Phononims
have similar taste, eg pince, prints, wince, etc
Demonstration
clearly displaying a phenomenon like the tables, or O rings in challenger.
interconnectivity
parts of the brain that are normally disconected during infancy ar enot in synthesetes
Leakage of information
one sense leaks info to others
weak synesthetes (does not include)
seeing stars when getting up to quickly, hypnogogic or hypnogogic imagery
K
constant (Fechners Law)
Delta
change in stimulus in webers law
francis Galton
who conducted the first study of synesthesia?
why are converging operations needed?
because every study has weaknesses and all studies need replication
chances of a 1st degree relative being a synesthete, brothers, sister
48.6%, 17%, 60%
Bouba
the blob by kohler
criterion respose
takes into account: response, fatigue, motication, experiance, expectation
effect size
an index of strength of the relationship between variables
signal detection theory (interpretting data)
hits, misses, correct rejections false alarms
advantage of demonstration
convincing on a personal, gut level
problems with meta analysis
some studies porrly conducted, differences in number of subjects
controls in synthete test
use of memory strategies, retesting, told they would be retested
Synesthesia (assocaitions)
it is assocaited with some pathologies or optic nerve damage, can be cause by hallucinogenic druges
within subjects design
all subjects serve in all conditions
R
Rise in stimulus or magnitude (fechners law)
I
stimulus starting with (webers law)
signal detection theory
trying to detect a signal from background noise (eg eviromental or noice in your head) can accuratly estimate these by forcing simple yes or no choices

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