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Exam II: Public Speaking


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What are the four guidelines for the speaking outline?
1) Follow the Visual Framework Used in the Preparation OUtline

2) Make Sure the Outline is Legible

3) Keep the Outline as Brief as Possible

4) Give Yourself Cues for Delivering the Speech
Follow the Visual Framework Used in the Preparation Outline
Your speaking outline should use the same visual framework--the same symbols and the same pattern of indentation--as your preparation outline. This will allow you to see instantly where you are in the speech at any given moment while you are speaking.
Make Sure the Outline is Legible
When you make your outline, use dark ink and large lettering, leave extra space between lines, provide ample margins, and write or type on one side of the paper only. Your notes must be immediately legible to you while you are speaking.
Keep the OUtline as Brief as Possible
If your notes are too detailed, you will have difficulty maintaining eye contact with your audience. To guard against having too many notes, keep your speaking outline as brief as possible. It should contain key words or phrases to help you remember major points, subpoints, and connectives.
Give Yourself Cues for Delivering the Speech
A good speaking outline reminds you not only of what you want to say but also of how you want to say it. Include in your speaking outline delivery cues--directions for delivering the speech
delivery cues
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech
directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech
delivery cues
denotative meaning
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
connotative meaning
the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.

Connotative meaning gives words their intensity and emotional power. It arouses in listeners feelings of anger, pity, love, fear, etc.
denotative vs connotative

when to use it?
It depends on the audience, the occasion, and the speaker's purpose. Do you want to stir up your listeners' emotions, rally them to some cause? Then select words with more intense connotative meanings. Or are you addressing a controversial issue and trying to seem completely impartial? Then stick with words that touch off less intense reactions. Choosing words skillfully for their denotative and connotative meanings is a crucial part of the speaker's craft.
concrete words
words that refer to tangible objects

ex: carrot, pencil, nose
abstract words
words that refer to ideas or concepts

ex: humility, science, progress
concrete vs. abstract
Of course, few words are completely abstract or concrete. Abstractness and concreteness are relative. Usually, the more specific a word, the more concrete it is. The more abstract a word, the more ambiguous it will be. A speech dominated by concrete words will almost always be clearer, more interesting, and easier to recall than one dominated by abstract words.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
an implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as," between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.

- When used effectively, metaphor--like simile--is an excellent way to bring color to a speech, to make abstract ideas concrete, to clarify the unknown, and to express feelings and emotions
an explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
an implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as," between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
the pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of cuccessive clauses or sentences
repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words.

ex: peace is essential for progress but progress is no less essential for peace.
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure

Ex: Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your contry.
What are four stylistic devices used to improve rhythm?
inclusive language
language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors
What are the five principles for inclusive language?
1) Avoid the Generic "He"

2) Avoid the Use of "Man" When Referring to Both Men and Women

3) Avoid Stereotyping Jobs and Social Roles by Gender

4) Avoid Identifying Personal Traits That Are Unrelated to the Topic (ex: Patrick, a stay-at-home father, proposed a boke path plan to the City Council. don't need stay-at-home father!)

5) Use Names that Groups Use to Identify Themselves
memorized speeches
reciting entirely from memory.

nowadays it is no longer customary to memorize any but the shortest of speeches--toasts, acceptance speeches, etc. Must memorize so thoroughly that you will be able to concentrate on comunicating with the audience, not on trying to remember the words.
impromptu speech
a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation

many speeches in life will be impromptu
extemporaneous speech
a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
conversational quality
presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
What are the four types of speeches?
a constant pitch or tone of voice
vocalized pause
a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh," "er," and "um"
What are the four distinguishing characteristics of speeches to inform?
1) accurate & clear presentation of message (audience comprehension)

2) gain & sustain audience attention (effective opening device and/or visual aids)

3) balanced & impartial presentation (give both sides so audience can make own perspective)

4) assist audience w/ retaining information (use good audience analysis & visual aids, adapting to audience learning style)
What are two things to remember about applying learning-styles to speeches to inform?
1) audience members learn differently
2) use variety of rhetorical techniques
What are the four learning styles?
feeling, watching, thinking, doing
If a person is a feeling learner, he stresses personal involvement. specific experiences. relating to people. What rhetorical techniques would a speaker use on him?
use extended examples
use vivid language (pathos)
If a person is a watching learner, he stresses multiple viewpoints. Diverse perspectives. Careful observation. What rhetorical techniques would a speaker use on him?
use many brief examples
use VAs (demos; video clips)
If a person is a thinking learner, he stresses systematic thinking. logical analysis. intellectual focus. What rhetorical techniques would a speaker use on him?
-use VAs (diagrams, graphs)
-use theoretical explanations
If a person is a doing learner, he stresses experimentation. active engagement. being involved. What rhetorical techniques would a speaker use on him?
use brief exercises
use VAs (video clips)
What kind of learner stresses multiple viewpoints? diverse perspectives? careful observation?
What type of learner stresses systematic thinking? logical analysis? intellectual focus?
What kind of learner stresses personal involvement? specific experiences? relating to people?
What kind of learner stresses experimentation? active engagement? being involved?
What are the eight factors of attention?
1) reality
2) proximity
3) familiarity
4) novelty
5) suspense
6) conflict
7) humor
8) vital
refer to content that mentions real ppl and events. use details. need to have everything.
something physically, temporally (happened recently), close at hand to audience
presenting readily identifiable brief examples used in a series
deal with unusual, dramatic developments. bizarre information.
telling info, but not giving the whole story. Info involves uncertainty.
opposition of forces
be comfortable and good at it. don't offend anyone
references in speech that involve audience happiness, security, health. how affect them directly?
What are the five advantages of using visual aids
1) sharpens clarity of message
2) gain audience attention and/or interest
3) increase audience retention
4) enhances your credibility (only if well constructed)
5) can decrease speaker nervousness
What are the six guidelines for preparing visual aids?
1) prepare them well in advance
2) keep VA simple and to one subject
3) make VA large enough for entire audience to see
4) make labels easy to read
5) use bold colors. keep it to 4 or 5 colors
6) professional appearance
What are the 8 guidelines for presenting visual aids?
1) display VA only while you are discussing them
2) display where your entire audience can see them
3) point to items on visual aids
4) talk to audience, not VA
5) explain all info on VA
6) avoid passing VA out to audience
7) if have posterboard, have an easel
8) have to practice w/ them
What are the three methods in development of simplicity?
1) use familiar words

2) use concrete words (tangible objects, not abstract)

3) eliminate clutter (using more words than necessary, "you know" "like" "really"- BAD)
What are the seven types of imagery?
1) visual (sight)

2) olfactory (smell)

3) gustatory (taste)

4) organic (internal sensations, hunger, dizzy, nausea)

5) auditory (hearing)

6) kinesthetic (straining of muscles, tense, contracting)

7) tactual (touch, pressure)
language intensity
words that reveal speakers attitude

neutral: The teacher discussed the theories of Karl Marx

positive: the distinguished professor enlightened us about Karl Marx's alternative views of society and economics

negative: the intellectual snob lectured ad nauseam about Karl Marx's communist drivel
Development of appropriateness is determined by what three factors?
occasion (eulogy, celebration)
19th Century Elocutionary MOvement
teaching just delivery techniques. reduced delivery to a sciene to make a good speaker. BUT NOW there are no precise rules; only guidelines
What are the four characteristics of vocal quality?
1) pleasantness
2) smoothness
3) conversationality
4) congruence with verbal message (upset, sincere)
What are the three characteristics of intelligibility?
loudness level
articulate words
What are the four characteristics of vocal variety?
1) changes in rate
2) emphasis or vocal stress
3) changes in loudness level
4) effective pauses
What are the three characteristics of effective gestures?
1) relaxation- natural
2) timing
3) use rigor and definateness
What are three suggestions for effective eye contact?
1) use direct eye contact
2) look at entire audience
3) look up 80-90% of the time

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