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Remembering and Forgetting


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This module opens with a study of eyewitness testimony of a filmed assailant. Out of 2,000 viewers, what percent identified the wrong man in a six-man lineup?
You are listening to a radio talk show hosted by a psychologist. One of her callers asks why memories are so hard to retrieve. The psychologist responds, "After memories are encoded, they are dumped into long-term memory. To find a particular memory
Trash can theory
According to the network theory, when we make associations in memory, links are established between
Nodes, according to the network theory of memory, are arranged in a:
network hierarchy
As you are remembering your first day of college, you are searching:
groups of nodes that are connected by personal associations
In general, the earliest event that we have a memory for occurred when we were:
3 1/2
In order to study memory and forgetting, Hermann Ebbinghaus utilized
three-letter nonsense syllables
Most students show better memory on _______ tests compared to ______ tests.
recognition; recall
An unconscious process by which people forget things that are threatening or anxiety-provoking is called:
Harry can't remember anything that happened after he was kidnapped and tortured. Harry is suffering from:
"I've moved so many times in the last five years, I get confused trying to remember all my phone numbers. I don't have any problems remembering my current phone number, but all the others are hard to remember." This most clearly illustrates:
"When my grandmother was alive, she used to call me Gerald, who was her cousin. And my name is not Gerald." Grandmother was experiencing
proactive interference
Proactive interference is to ________ as retroactive interference is to _______.
forward; backward
Dr. Wilson cannot remember the name of her advisor when she was in medical school 30 years ago. She "knows" that she knows his name, and makes a great effort, but just can't remember. Dr. Wilson is experiencing
tip of the tongue phenomenon
According to state-dependent learning, being in the same emotional state during encoding and retrieving helps recall. This suggests
retrieval cues include emotional states
Harold has sustained damage to his hippocampus. As his neurologist, what should you tell his wife about what she can expect from Harold?
Can't remember new words, can't transfer declarative info from short term to long term memory, can do motor skills better
As information is stored in short-term memory, our nervous system uses interconnected groups of neurons called
neural assemblies
Methods that help encode and recall information through associations and images are called:
What is the mnemonic called that used associations between number-word rhymes and the items to be memorized?
peg method
According to your textbook, poor ______ results in poor ______ cues which make recall difficult
encoding, retrieval
According to the textbook, what phrase can convince a child that a false event actually happened?
to think hard
Studies of eyewitness testimony have shown
little relationship exists between confidence and accuracy
When evaluating eyewitness testimony, pay close attention to:
how the questions to the eyewitness are worded
An outcome of using the cognitive interview technique is that an eyewitness is
less likely to be influenced by the questions and therefore not likely to experience source misattribution
What form of memory retrieval are you using when answering this multiple-choice question?
If you believe that memories are "dumped" in an unorganized manner into memory and then are retrieved by searching through all the memories until you find the right one, you subscribe to:
the trash can theory
In the network theory, nodes are like _____ that are connected
cities on a map
The node "dog" would likely be included as a subset of the node:
A network is made up of:
thousands of interconnected nodes
The two primary reasons why our memory is limited in early life is:
limited language skills and underdeveloped frontal cortex
Based upon Ebbinghaus' research using nonsense syllables, forgetting curves show that most unfamiliar information is:
forgotten within the first hour
Bryce attended his 25th high school reunion. As he was driving to the reunion, he tried to remember the names of some of his classmates. This is called _____; at the reunion he could see remember his classmates when he saw their faces. This is called ___
recall, recognition
Why would a memory be repressed?
The memory is emotionally threatening or is provokes anxiety
Reminders we create in making associations between previously learned information and newly learned information are called:
retrieval codes
On the second day of class, you can't remember your psychology professor's name. If fact, you have difficulty remembering your other professors' names. If this is an example of interference, where are those memories?
The memory is still stored in long term memory
Kyle is having trouble learning the multiplication tables because he finds that the earlier learned associations interfere with the ones currently being memorized. This is called:
proactive interference
Mental reminders that are created when you form vivid mental images of information are called:
retrieval cue
Research on retrieval cues has found that it is the _______ of associations that leads to improved recall of events or information.
"What's that thing called? Oh, I know it! What is it? Come on, this is ridiculous." This experience is often called the:
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Our memories can evoke emotional experiences due, in part, to the activity of the:
When we repeat a phone number, _______ are activated that recognize and hold the phone number in short-term memory
neural assemblies
Repeating someone's address stimulates neurons, which in turn, produces:
long-term potentiation
A technique for creating visual associations between memorized places and items to be memorized is called:
the method of loci
The peg method is a mnemonic encoding technique that creates:
associations between number-word rhymes and items to be memorized
In industrialized countries, we spend our lives communicating through verbal information by speaking, reading, and writing. According to the textbook, we probably encode and store information using:
verbal retrieval cues
A witness of a bank robbery is asked if she remembers the bank manager wearing a tie. If she is influenced by the question, it is likely the witness will
say yes because male bank managers usually wear ties
_________ can occur when a person cannot decide if a memory came from one source or another source.
A professor is writing a test for his introductory psychology class. He decides that he is going to assess his students' recall. What kind of test should he write?
Cindy does really well when Dr. Barrios gives a multiple-choice exam but has a lot of trouble when his exams consist of fill-in-the-blank questions. Cindy finds ________ easier than ________.
recognition; recall
The network theory proposes that we are capable of "traveling" from node to node because:
the nodes have been linked together through associations
Based upon forgetting curves, our memory for _________ information is much better than our memory for ___________ information:
interesting; uninteresting
When the mind pushes some traumatic memory into the unconscious only to stay there until it is released, ________ is said to have taken place.
You were introduced to your friend's professor recently, but there was no time to chat and now you can't recall the professor's name--this is an example of:
poor retrieval cues
Damage to the brain caused by blows to the head or a concussion may cause loss of memories and results in:
When old information interferes with information we are trying to learn, ___________ is occurring.
proactive interference
An anthropology professor prides herself in her ability to remember the names of her students, past and present. However, she finds that the longer she is in the profession, the harder it becomes to remember the names of present students, because they be
proactive interference
Mary uses numerous different colors when she takes notes in her psychology class. If she has difficulty with a question on an exam, she finds it helpful to remember the color of the notes relevant to the question. For Mary, the color of the notes acts as
retrieval cues
"Oh, I know the answer to this question. Oh, it's on the tip of my tongue. Don't say it. Oh, come on. I know it." If you have ever experienced this, then you are familiar with:
tip-of the tongue phenomenon
In her geography class, Kelli is asked by the teacher to name the capital of North Dakota. Kelli experiences the tip of the tongue phenomenon. What is the best explanation for the tip of the tongue phenomenon?
The information was encoded using poor retrieval cues.
Our short-term memory abilities are a function of activity in the:
Which area of the brain appears to be most related to memory functioning?
Researchers believe that permanently storing information in long-term memory involves chemical, functional, and _______ changes.
A man memorizes a shopping list by imagining where each item would be found in his local supermarket. He is using:
method of loci
A person memorizing a set of number-word rhymes on which other ideas to be memorized can be hung would be using which mnemonic device?
peg method
In nonindustrialized countries where there is no written language, we would suspect that individuals encode information by using:
visual retrieval cues
Research on false memories in children indicates that false memories can be created by
We tend to better recognize faces of our own race rather than faces of other races. This is called:
own race bias
When Tanner looks at a picture taken thirty years ago of his brother and himself sitting on Santa Claus' lap, he claims he remembers the event. But, what if the reason why he remembers it is because of the picture? Or does he have a true memory of his vi
source misattribution
The retrieval of previously learned information without the assistance of external cues is called:
According to the network theory of memory, another name for memory files is:
Network theory relies on the concept of nodes. What is a node?a memory file that contains related information organized around a specific topic
a memory file that contains related information organized around a specific topic
How would the network theory of memory explain the time that you thought of baseball and in a few seconds you ended up thinking about toothpaste?
You were following personal associations or mental modes traveling from node to node.
Wow! The lecture in psychology last week was very interesting. But you wonder how much of it you'll remember in 7 years. The research says that we forget only about ______ of interesting information
What name is best associated with repression?
A man was convicted of involuntary murder of an elderly woman. The incident took place while the two were arguing, and the woman suffered a heart attack and died. The man is very remorseful, but cannot remember anything about the argument. This type of f
You are creating a web site to describe interference. What would be the most appropriate web site name?
Proactive interference is when:
information learned earlier now disrupts retrieval of information learned later
"I know all of my students' names this semester. But I would have a hard time remembering many of the names from past semesters." This illustrates:
retroactive interference
Albert has to remember many scientific formulas in his physics class. To help him remember them, he associates each one with a different former girlfriend. The former girlfriends are serving as:
retrieval cues
We tend to experience the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon when trying to name:
people and objects
Allison is learning Spanish, but she hates it. When she is in her Spanish classes, she is always unhappy. The phenomenon of state-dependent learning would suggest that she would show better recall of Spanish words if she
was in an unhappy mood
If your cortex was damaged, you could not:
hold info in short-term memory
Damage to the _______ area of the brain appears to prevent the transfer of information from short-term into long-term memory
In examining the mechanisms of memory, researchers have found that during the formation of memories:
new chemicals are synthesized
If a neuron becomes more sensitive to stimulation after it has been repeatedly stimulated, ________is said to have occurred.
long-term potentiation
Violet has to learn the colors of the visual spectrum for science class. Erv tells her that the name "ROY G. BIV" can be used to remember them because each letter stands for a color (e.g., R = Red). Using ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of th
a mnemonic
In a famous case, a Russian man with a fantastic memory would remember the order of lists of numbers by mentally placing the numbers in familiar spots on Gorky Street in his hometown and then mentally walking down the street when he had to retrieve them.
method of loci
Both the method of loci and the peg method work by:
creating strong associations that will serve as effective retrieval cues
Aborigine children performed significantly better than white Australian children on memory tasks when:
the task involved visual cues
Some believe that a child's lies or made up stories can be detected by:
facial features and speech patterns
Mr. Nguyen witnesses a bank robbery. During the investigation, he was asked to report everything he remembered without holding back anything. He also was asked to describe the crime from several viewpoints. The technique used to record Mr. Nguyen's state
cognitive interview
You are watching a spy thriller on television. In the movie a secret agent is trying to identify a spy for the other side by looking at some pictures of possible spies. They spy is using ________ to identify the correct individual.
According to ______ theory, memory is organized by nodes, associations, and hierarchies of informatio
If you let your memory flow freely, you will find that one memory triggers another memory which triggers another. How would the network theory explain this?
Memories are connected in an enormous cognitive network
Jorge is watching a show on television that describes how to fix car engines. He sees the host of the show using a specialized tool. Jorge thinks he knows what the tool is called. Based on the research cited in the module, what part of the brain is showi
front of the brain
A _____________ measures the amount of previously learned information that subjects can remember across time.
forgetting curve
In one of your classes last week, you were introduced to some material that was very uninteresting but you were determined to learn it and you did. That was last week! How much of the material can you expect to have forgotten?
The inability to retrieve, recall, or recognize information that was stored or is still stored in long-term memory is called:
You know you said something terribly embarrassing, but you can't remember what it was--this is an example of:
Studying by cramming or rote memory tends to:
create poor retrieval cues
The reason which suggests that people forget information because other information gets in the way and blocks its retrieval is called:
Lena has started to watch a video at Tina's house. Lena says that she saw the movie last month. She tries to anticipate the next scene or what a character will say, but she is wrong and says, "Maybe I'm getting this movie confused with another movie
proactive interference
The Mall of America labels their parking lots with the names of states. Why?
The state names are retrieval cues that help people remember where they parked
According to the text, the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon results from
inadequate retrieval cues or interference
You should be in the same physiological state during retrieval of information as you were when learning the information. This is called:
state-dependent learning
Peter sustains damage to his cortex due to a car accident. What can we expect will be the changes in his memory
Peter will have great difficulty with both short-term and long-term memory.
Gabe and Anna have been married for 10 years. During a drive in the country, they both hear "their song" on the radio. They then talk about their wonderful lives together. Which part of the brain provides this emotional dimension to their memor
People with damage to the hippocampus:
cannot save any declarative memories
Why do memory researchers use sea slugs for research?
They have only 20,000 neurons.
We humans are very proud of our ability to "think" but, when we study creatures like the sea slug, "thought" begins to look more like
molecular, chemical, and structural changes in the nervous system
Suppose you had to remember the ten most important battles of the Civil War in the order that they occurred. Which of the following ways would likely be most effective
method of loci
Rolando wants to memorize a list of items to take on a camping trip. He uses "Four is a door" to remember the fourth item, imagining a sleeping bag up against the door. Rolando is using:
peg method
An Australian Aborigine might not score well on Western intelligence tests because Aborigine
utilize more visual cues than verbal cues
Six-year-old Mary is giving testimony in a criminal case in court. She is a prosecution witness. To rebut her damaging testimony, the defense should:
bring an expert in who will testify that false memories can be implanted in children
The cognitive interview is a technique used to:
reconstruct memories about crimes
If you retrieve previously learned information without the aid of any external cues you are using a process of remembering called
If you identify or match information that you have previously learned, you are using a process of remembering called
Memory files or categories that contain related information organized around a specific topic are called
One theory of memory organization says that the separate memory files or nodes in which we related ideas are interconnected in a gigantic system, this is called
network hierarchy
According to network theory, some nodes are arranged so that more concrete information is at the botton and more abstract information is at the top; this order is called a
A diagram of the amount of previously learned information that subjects can recall or recognize across time is called a
forgetting curve
We tend to remember information that is ______ and ______ and forget information that is ______and ______
familiar and interesting; unfamiliar and uninteresting
Psychologists have proposed at least four reasons for forgetting. According to Sigmund Freud, info that is threatening to our self-concept is automatically driven into our unconscious, from which we cannot retrieve it at will, this process is called
One common reason for forgetting is that other related memories already stored in long-term memory may interfere with or block recall of some particular memory; this idea is called
Another reason for forgetting comes from a lack of associations between new information and information we already know; this reason has to do with the quality of the
retrieval cues
A blow to the head may cause a form of forgetting called____in which one loses all memories of events that occurred just before or just after being hit or after severe psychological_____
amnesia; stress
If we forget information not because it is lost from storage but rather because other information gets in the way and blocks its retrieval, this process is called
If information learned earlierblocks, interferes with or disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned later, it is called
proactive interference
If information learned later blocks, interferes with or disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier, it is called
retroactive interference
Mental reminders that we create by making images or associating new information with information that we already know are called
retrieval cues
Sometimes, despite aking a great effort, we are temporarily unable to recall information that we absolutely know is in our memory. This is called the ________phenomenon
According to one memory model of the brain, short-term memories are formed and stored in different parts of the
Long term memories are also store in different parts of the________although these kinds of memories are not formed there.
Declarative information is transferred by the ______into long-term memory which is stored in different parts of the cortex.
However, the hippocampus is not involved in transferring motor skills or habits, which are part of _____information, into long-term memory.
Emotional associations are added to memories by an area in the temporal lobe called the
If you are asked to retrieve previously learned information without the aid of external cues, you are using a process of remembering called
If you are asked to answer multiple-choise questions, you can identify or match information and use a process of remembering called____which is generally less difficult
According to one theory of memory organization, we encode or file related ideas in separate categories called
We form links between nodes by forming associations. The idea that the interconnected nodes form a gigantic system is called the ____theory
An arrangement in which nodes are organized in a logical manner, with more concrete information at the bottom and more abstract info at the top, is called a
_______demonstrated that the majority of nonsense syllables are forgotten within hours.
There are at least four reasons for forgetting. One of the most common is that other memories may interfere with or prevent retrieval of some particular memory; this is called
A second reason for forgetting is that information is poorly encoded, which means that a lack of associations or reminders makes it difficult to retrieve a memory; this is called
inadequate retrieval cues
A third reason according to Freud is that info that is threatening to our self-concept is automatically driven into our unconscious, from which we cannot retrieve it at will; this is called
A fourth reason for forgetting is the effect of a blow to the head, psychological trauma or drugs, this is called
To increase the chances of remembering items from long-term memory, we can create reminders that associate new information with information that we already know, these reminders are called
retrieval cues
There are times when you are absolutely sure that certain information is stored in memory but you are unable to retrieve it. This experience is called the ______phenomenon
Besides creating retrieval cues, it may also be easier to recall info when you are in the same physiological or emotional state as when you originally learned it, this phenomenon is called
state-dependent learning
Different areas of the brain are involved in different memory processes. For example, the ability to hold words, facts, or events(declarative information) in short-term memory depends on the activity in the_______________
The ability to transfer info about words, facts and events or______from short-term into long-term memory depends on activity in the
If there was damage to the hippocampus, a person could carry on a conversation but would not________the conversation the next day
The ability to recall words, facts and events from the past involves activity in the outer covering of the brain which is called
If patients have intact cortex, they remember past events that are already stored in the cortex, but they may have difficulty remembering any new words, facts or events(declarative info) because of damage to the __________
The ability to transfer motor skills and habits, which is part of _______memory, does not involve the hippocampus. Even though a person with damage to the hippocampus can store procedural info, that person would have no memory of engaging the event(decla
The area of the brain that adds emotional feelings to memories is called the________
Researchers believe that the brain forms and briefly stores short-term memories by using a circuit of interconnected neurons called
neural assemblies
Researchers have evidence that the formation and storage of long-term memories involve the repeated stimulation of neurons, which in turn results in their becoming more sensitive to future stimulation; this phenomenon is called________
long-term potentiation
When LTP was chemically or genetically blocked, animals were unable to form________
long-term memories
Although we have the capacity to store great amounts of info, we may not be able to recall some of this info because of _______
Techniques that use effiecient methods of encoding to improve remembering and prevent forgetting are called
The major function of these techniques to remember is to create strong_____that will serve as effective__________
associations; retrieval cues
A method that creates visual associations between memorized places and items to be memorized is called the_________
method of loci
With another method, one creates associations between number-word rhymes and items to be memorized; this method is called the
peg method
Data from Aborigine and white Australian children suggest that survival needs may shape and reward a particular way of______information in memory
People in the industrialized world are required to store large amounts of _______
verbal information
Aborigines in the wilds of Australia need to be able to store environmental or ____to find their way, locate watering places, and thus increase chances of survival
visual information
Researchers found that Aborigines performed better on tests that required_____retrieval cues and performed less well on tests that required _____cues
visual; verbal
Researches have found that although young children can accurately recall past events, repeated suggestions may create_______in young children
false memories
ONe reason eyewitnesses may identify the wrong suspect is that criminal situations may be very emotionally disruptive or distracting, which may cause interference that leads to ________
Another reason eyewitness testimony may not be reliable is that witnesses may be influenced by officials who ask______questions
When a person has difficulty deciding which of two or more sources is responsible for a memory, it is called_________
source misattribution
Researchers found that misleading questions and false information can cause subjects to _____ events
The recall of eyewitnesses may be improved by having them imagine and reconstruct the details of an event, report everything that they remember, and report things from different viewpoints. This method is called_____
cognitive interview
With this method, eyewitnesses remember much more information about the event than they do when asked standard questions, this is called a__________. This procedure also helps eliminate suggestions or sourcemisattributions, which can result in implanting
cognitive interview; false memories

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