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computer science chapter 6 terms

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
LCD quality
1. resolution 2. response time 3. brightness 4. Pixel pitch
resolution
The sharpness and clearness of an image, defined in pixels. The greater the number of pixels in an image, the better the quality of the image
internet telephony
Use of the Web and a computer to conduct a conversation as if on a telephone
electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
Magnetic field that travels at the speed of light. CRT monitors produce a small amount of electromagnetic radiation
refresh rate
The speed at which a monitor redraws the images on the screen. Also called scan rate
portrait orientation
Orientation that produces a printout that is taller than it is wide, with information printed across the shorter width of the paper
display device
Output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information electronically, for a temporary period. A display device consists of a screen and the components that produce the information on the screen. Also called display
ENERGY STAR Program
Program, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, that encourages manufacturers of computer components to create energy-efficient devices requiring little power when they are not in use
bit depth or color depth
The number of bits a video card uses to store information about each pixel. The greater the number of bits, the better the resulting image. Also called color depth
aspect ratio
a display's width relative to its height
impact printer
Type of printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a mechanism against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper. Impact printers commonly produce near letter quality output
DVI (Digital Video Interface) port
Interface that can accept digital signals directly, eliminating the need for analog to digital conversion
active-matrix display
Type of display, often found in flat-panel monitors and LCD screens, that utilizes a separate transistor for each liquid crystal cell in order to display high-quality color that is viewable from all angles. Also called TFT (thin-film transistor) display
HDTV
The most advanced form of digital television, which works with digital broadcast signals, transmits digital sound, supports wide screens, and provides resolutions up to 1920 x 1080 pixels. HDTV is short for high-definition television
pixel pitch
The distance in millimeters between each like-color pixel on a display. The smaller the distance between pixels, the sharper the image. Pixel pitch is one measurement of image clarity on a CRT monitor. Also called dot pitch
laser printer
Type of high-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer that creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink, called toner. The laser beam produces an image on a special drum inside the printer. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits, causing toner to stick to the drum. The toner then is transferred to paper through a combination of pressure and heat
continuous-form paper
Type of paper, used by most dot-matrix printers, which consists of thousands of pages connected end to end. These pages are perforated to allow users to separate the pages into standard-sized sheets of paper
TFT (thin-film transistor) display
Type of display, often found in flat-panel monitors and LCD screens, that utilizes a separate transistor for each liquid crystal cell in order to display high-quality color that is viewable from all angles. Also called active-matrix display
ink-jet printer
Type of nonimpact printer that forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink onto a piece of paper. Because ink-jet printers are inexpensive and produce letter-quality print, they are the most popular type of color printer for use in the home
digital light processing (DLP) projector
Projector that uses tiny mirrors to reflect light, which produces crisp, bright, colorful images that remain in focus and can be seen clearly even in a well-lit room
nit
Unit of visible light intensity that is equal to one candela per square meter. The brightness of a flat-panel monitor or LCD typically is measured in nits
CRT monitor
Type of desktop monitor that is similar to a standard television because it contains a cathode-ray tube
organic LED (OLED)
Newer type of TFT display that uses organic molecules to produce an even brighter, easier-to-read display than standard TFT displays. OLEDs are less expensive to produce than standard TFT displays, consume less power, and can be fabricated on flexible surfaces
dot pitch
The distance in millimeters between each like-color pixel on a display. The smaller the distance between the pixels, the sharper the image. Dot pitch is one measurement of image clarity on a CRT monitor. Also called pixel pitch
fax
Document sent or received via a fax machine
non-impact printer
Type of printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually striking the paper. Some nonimpact printers spray ink, while others use heat or pressure to create images
line printer
Type of high-speed impact printer that prints an entire line at a time
flat-panel monitor
is a desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display to produce images
high-definition television
The most advanced form of digital television, which works with digital broadcast signals, transmits digital sound, supports wide screens, and provides resolutions up to 1920 x 1080 pixels. Commonly called HDTV
flat-panel display
Display that has a shallow depth and uses LCD, gas plasma, or some technology other than CRT
plasma monitor
display device that uses gas plasma technology, which sandwitches a layer of gas between two glass plates
pixel
A single point in an electronic image. Pixel is short for picture element
hard copy
Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than a soft copy, which exists only on a display device. Also called printout 6.13
native resolution
LCD's that are geared for a specific resolution
PostScript
Common page description language for printers that supports complex documents with intense graphics and colors
monitor
Plastic or metal case that houses a display device as a separate peripheral. Desktop computers typically use monitors as their display devices
graphics processing unit (GPU)
Processor chip contained in a video card that performs calculations used to display images on a screen
PictBridge
a standard technology that allows you to print pictures directly from a digital camera by connecting a cable from the digital camera to a USB port on the printer
dots per inch (dpi)
Measurement of printer resolution that specifies the number of printed dots a printer can output per inch. The higher the dpi, the better the print quality
response time
The time in milliseconds (ms) that it takes to turn a pixel on or off. Response time is an important measure of LCD displays
soft copy
Information that exists electronically and displays for a temporary period on a display device
quality of a CRT monitor
1. resolution 2. dot pitch 3. refresh or scan rate
liquid crystal display (LCD)
Type of display that uses a liquid compound to present information on a screen. Computer LCDs typically have fluorescent tubes that emit light waves toward the liquid crystal cells, which are sandwiched between two sheets of material. When an electrical charge passes through the cells, they twist, causing some light waves to be blocked and allowing others to pass through, thereby creating images on a screen
fax modem
Modem used to send (and sometimes receive) electronic documents as faxes
LCD printer
Desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display instead of a cathode-ray tube to produce images on a screen, resulting in a sharp, flicker-free display. An LCD monitor takes up less desk space, uses less power, and produces less heat than a CRT monitor. It also does not produce electromagnetic radiation
cathode-ray tube (CRT)
Large, sealed glass tube whose front, the screen, is coated with dots of red, green, and blue phosphor material. These dots glow when an electron beam inside the CRT moves back and forth across the back of the screen. Most desktop monitors contain CRTs
multifunction peripheral
Output device that looks like a copy machine but provides the functionality of a printer, a scanner, a copy machine, and perhaps a fax machine. Also called all-in-one device
digital television (DTV)
Type of television that uses digital signals to produce crisp, high-quality output
page description language (PDL)
Software that tells a printer how to lay out the contents of a printed page
passive-matrix display
Type of LCD that uses fewer transistors and requires less power than an active-matrix display, resulting in color often that is not as bright as that of an active-matrix display

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