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Learning Disabilities


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Strategies for teaching spelling:
1. Auditory perception and memory of letter sounds
2. Visual memory of words
3. Multisensory methods in spelling (Meaning and pronuncuation, imagery, recall, writing the word, mastery)
4. The Fernald Method
5. The "test-study-test" model
6. Listening centers and tapes
7. Electronic spellers and computer spell-checkers
Transition plans for adolescents--When are they required? What should transition plans include?
*age 14
They should include:
*current levels of performance
*interests and aptitude
*postschool goals
*transition activities (vocational and career, work experience, and community-based instruction)
*designate responsible persons
*review and revise
Stages of the writing process:
Prewriting, writing a draft, revising, sharing with an audience
What is a common term used to describe preschoolers with learning disabilities? At what age must young children receive a categorical label?
developmentally delayed; 3
Left-handed students and writing
Leave them as leftys!
Activities that promote early literacy:
engage children in oral language activities, surround young children with a literacy environment, introduce concepts about print, use word and sound games, build alphabet knowledge, make children aware of letter-sound correspondence, encourage early writing, help children build a beginning reading vocabulary.
What mathematic skills are required for graduation?
All the way to algebra
What are possible difficulties experienced by children who lack phonological awareness?
They are completely unaware of how language is put together. They are unable to recognize or isolate sound of words or the number of sounds in a word. They cannot recognize similarities in words (words that rhyme and alliteration in words)
List and describe precursor skills to learning mathematics.
spatial relationships--up/down, over/under, high/low, this can interfere with understanding the entire number system.
sense of body image--relationship of the body parts
visual-motor and visual-perception abilities--(pg. 503)
concepts of direction and time
memory abilities
Special Education Legislation for preschoolers--What does Part B of the law provide? Part C?
Part B: (Preschoolers Ages 3-5) They receive the same full rights under IDEA and may have a developmental delay in one or more of the following: physical, cognitive, communication, social or emotional, or adaptive development.
Part C: (Infants and toddlers birth-2 years) ISFP is used that includes plans for the family as well as the child. (pg. 244 Table 8.2)
Differentiate narrative and expository reading materials:
Narrative materials are stories, usualy fiction. Narratives have characters, a plot, a sequence of events that occur during the story. Expository materials include informational materials--i.e. textbooks
Different approaches for teaching ESL students:
*bilingual method-students use their native language for part of the day and English for the other portion
*Sheltered English-students learn English more rapidly through instruction with printed materials that are written in English, typically used for a content-area subject.
*immersion method-students receive extensive exposure to English, with none to their original language
Strategies for teaching handwriting
1. Chalkboard activities
2. Other materials for writing-movement practice
3. Position
4. Paper
5. Holding the pencil (between their thumb and middle finger with the index finger riding the pencil, if difficult, large pencils, clay, tape)
6. Stencils and templates
7. Tracing
8. Drawing between the lines
9. Dot-to-dot
10. Tracing with reducing cues
11. Lined paper
12. Template lines
13. Letter difficulty
14. Verbal cues
15. Words and sentences
Stages of language development:
babbling, jargon, single words, two-and three-word sentences
Formal and informal methods for assessing reading:
Formal: survey tests, diagnostic tests, or comprehensive batteries (Woodcock-Johnson, Brigance)
Informal: informal reading inventory, IOTA Informal Word-Reading test, miscue analysis of oral reading and portfolio assessment of reading
Remedial approaches to teaching reading: The Fernald Method
an approach to reading that uses visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile senses, but it differs from the other multisensory programs in that it teaches a whole word rather than single sounds.
Describe intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcers.
Intrinsic: comes from within, self-satisfaction
Extrinsic: given externally
Problems associated with receptive and expressive language disorders:
Receptive: (understanding) cannot understand the meaning of a single word, cannot understand sentences, echolalia (repeating words), unable to discriminate between tones or single letter sounds, unable to blends, and inability to recognize small word parts within a sentence.
Expressive: (speaking) dysnomia (word finding problem or a deficiency in remembering and expressing words), apraxia (remember the sound of the word but cannot manipulate their speech to make sounds, inability to form sentences
Types of math errors that students can make.
place value, computation facts, using the wrong process, working from right to left
Preschool Programs: Head Start
*purpose was to offer early educational experiences to preschoolers from homes of poverty
*10% of enrollment reserved for children with disabilities
*early intervention
Differentiate word prediction and voice recognition programs.
Word prediction programs work together with a word processor to "predict" the word the user wants to enter into the computer. When the user types the first one or two letters of a word, the program offers a list of words beginning with that letter.
Voice recognition systems allow a person to operate a computer by speaking to it. Using it in combination with a word processor, the user dictates to the system through a microphone, and the spoken words are converted to text on the computer screen.
What is temporal acoustic processing?
be able to process sounds quickly enough to distinguish rapid acoustical change in speech sounds and words
What is the multipass learning strategy?
Students review a text three times to enhance comprehension. In the "survey" pass they preview the introduction and summary and examine the headings and visual displays of the text. In the "size-up" pass, they identify the most important content of the text by reading the chapter questions and surveying the text for the answers. During the "sort-out" pass, the students reads the selection and answers each accompanying question.
IDEA requirements and high stakes testing
*IDEA requires that states include students with disabilities in their statewide and districtwide assessments
*IDEA also requires that states develop alternate assessments and policies on accommodations for students with disabilities.
What is invented spelling and what does research say about it?
Invented spelling is the beginning writer's attempt to write words by attending to their sound units and associating letters with them in a systematic altough unconventional way. Research shows that children who were allowed to invent their own spelling at an early age tend to spell as well or better than children who were not given this instruction.
Curriculum models for adolescents with learning disabilities:
*Basic academic skills instruction
*tutorial programs
*functional or survival skills instruction
*work-study programs
What is the language experience apporach to teaching reading?
a method that builds on the student's knowledge and language base, linking the different forms of language--listening, speaking, reading, and writing. (pg. 433)
Types of Assessments for preschool children:
Cognitive development: child's ability in thinking, planning, and concept development. (Identifying colors, naming body parts, etc.)
Motor development: physical development, gross and fine motor skills
Communication development: speech and language skills and ability to understand and use language.
Social and Emotional development: observational notes--how child relates to adults and other peers.
Adaptive development: self-help skills (tolieting skills, dressing skills, eating, etc.)
Principles of instruction for students with mathematics disabilities.
Equity, Curriculum, Teaching, Learning, Assessment, and Technology
Which legislation protects adults with learning disabilities?
The Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 od the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Formal and informal methods for assessing math ability
Formal: Standardized survey test, group survey tests, individually administered achievement tests, diagnostic math tests
Informal: Informal inventories, analyzing math errors, curriculum based assessment
Steps in the Strategies Intervention Model
1. Teacher pretests students and obtains a commitment
2. Teacher describes the learning strategy
3. Teacher models the strategy
4. Students verbally practice the strategy
5. Students have controlled practice and feedback
6. Students have advanced practice and feedback
7. Teacher posttests students and obtains commitment
8. Students generalize the learning strategy
What types of behavior do students with social skills disabilities exhibit?
poor social perception, lack of judgment, difficulties in perceiving how others feel, problems in socializing and making friends
Preschool Programs: High Scope
*for children at risk for developmental delays or underachievement
*Piagetian-based cognitive emphasis curriculum
*provides experiences and activities to build thinking skills
*early intervention
Remedial approaches to teaching reading: Multisensory methods--
help anchor verbal information by providing links with the visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic pathways for learning; use highly structured phonics instruction with an emphasis on the alphabetic system; include abundant drill, practice, and repetition; have carefully planned sequential lessons; emphasize explicit instruction in the language rule systems to guide reading and spelling
How does language development progress?
language development progresses as child ages
What is cognitive behavior modification?
a self-instructional approach to learning
1. Teacher models or performs task while talking to himself out loud as students observe.
2. Students perform same task while talking to themselves
3. Students quietly whisper the instructions to themselves while going through the task.
4. Students use inner speech while performing task.
5. Students self monitor their performance by telling themselves how they did.
Remedial approaches to teaching reading: Direct Instruction programs
consists of lessons based on carefully sequenced skill hierarchies; based on the principles of behavioral psychology; contains drills and instructional reading as well as materials for repetition and practice; students progress in small planned steps, and teacher praise is used as reinforcement; program uses a synthetic phonics approach and students are first taught the prerequisite skill of auditory blending to help them combine isolated sounds into words
The Attribution theory and poor vs. successful achievers
The way people explain to themselves the causes of their successes and failures. Poor achievers attribute their successes to factors outside of their control (luck or teacher) whereas successful achievers attribute success to their own effort.
Methods for improving reading fluency:
repeated reading, neurological impress method (read along in which teacher and student read a passage together orally), paired reading, and echo reading
Describe the resilient child.
Students who believe they have competencies in areas other than academic work, have a strong sense of self-worth, have a support system, can handle rejection and failure well
What is dyslexia?
a severe reading disorderin which the individual cannot learn to read or does not acquire fluent and efficient reading skills.
Remedial approaches to teaching reading: Reading Recovery
one-on-one reading instruction; structured format; child reads both east familiar and unfamiliar books; student then dictates a sentence about a short story; the teacher reads it and guides the child to accurately write it; the teacher then copies the message onto a sentence strip, cuts it into individial words, and asks the child to reassemble it; the teacher and child also work with manipulating letters and saying letter sounds; throughout the lesson, the teacher fosters the development of reading strategies for identifying words and comprehending text.

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