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psych 111 exam 1


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7 organizing themes for psychology
empirical: based on observation
theoretically diverse: some behaviors explained by diff reasons
sociohistorical context impacts theory and practice
determined by multiple causes
shaped by cultural heritage
absolute threshold
(for a specific type of sensory input)
-the minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect
addictive potential
can be addictive depending on definition
adolescent risks of steroids
growth halted through premature skeletal maturation
-CNS depressant
-produces mind euphoria,relaxation,anxiety reduction, reduced inhibitions
-can impair coordination, mental functioning, emotional fluctuations
-moderate risk of physical and psychological dependence
evaluates sensory info
-linked to fear responses
-emotional events
anabolic steroids
muscle building
increased masculine characteristics
stimuli for hearing are sound waves
Behavioral genetics
influence of genetic traits on behavior
Behind pupil is lens
-becomes thinner to focus on distant objects
-thicker to focus on nearby objects
binocular disparity(retinal)
-objects project images to different locations on the right and left retina which give a diff viewof the object
-the closer an item gets the greater the display between the images on the eye
blind spot
we dont experience as a "hole" as each eye compensates for the blind spot on the other
brain plasticity
ability of brain to change shape and reconnect with other neurons
Broca's Area
involved in speech production
-largest and most complex part of brain
-divided into two halves or hemispheres
-connected by a band of fibers called the CORPUS CALLOSUM
hereditary material in the nuclei of all cells
-each chromosome is made up of genes which contain DNA
-sperm and egg eah have 23 chromosomes; they form a zygote which contains 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
chronic insomnia
underlying medical or behavioral issues
-does have a genetic component likely as it runs in families
circadian cycles
-individuals have diff internal clocks
-most run on 24 hour cycle
-almost all are set for sleep at night
-night time sleepiness:2-6am peak
-siesta zone: 1-4pm
-programmed for naps
clinical psychology
diagnose and treat emotional problems
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision
mental events we are aware of
the awareness of internal and external stimuli
light waves enter eye
counseling psychology
deal with problems of everyday life and transitions
crack and cocaine
powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulant
demand characteristics
subjects may behave in ways they think are expected of them
slow down CNS activity; induce sleep, decrease activity
depth perception
retina recieves info in 2 dimensions: length and width
-brain translates into 3 dimensions; use binoculars and monocular cues
Developmental Issues with Sleep: middle age
-Much explained by hormonal changes and alternations in the environment
Developmental issues with sleep:adolescents
-The sleep less but need more sleep
-Leads to decreased levels of productivity
-College students fit this pattern
Developmental Issues with Sleep:newborns and infants
-50% of sleep is REM
-By age 3-5 it is more like 20% of overall sleep is REM, which is more similar to the adult level
-Infants appear to be hardwired for REM sleep
Developmental issues with sleep:the elderly
-Most commonly impacted by changes in sleep patterns, alterations in sleep cycles.
-Spend more time in bed, take longer to fall asleep, awake more in the night, sleep is less efficient:increase in stage 1, decrease in stage 4
difference threshold
smallest diference between 2 stimuli that people can receive 50% of the time
dominant genes
expressed when pair of genes is different
double-blind study
controls for subject and experimenter bias with limited knowledge for both
dual process theory

-eye has 3 types of cones with each being sensitive to a diff bond of wavelength(supports trichomatic)
-cells have been found which responds in opposite ways to red vs green, blue vs yellow (supports opp process)
effects LSD unpredictable and depend on many variables
-amount taken
-users personality, mood, and expectations
experimenter bias
reasearch expectations may impact the interpretations of results
faster absorption-more intense high
-tolerance develops
-high doses/prolonged use can trigger paranoia
-depression associated with stoppage
forebrain: hypothalamus
hunger, thirst, emotion, sex and reproduction, body temp and the autonomic nervouse system
*The four F's: fighting, fleeing, feeding, fucking*
Forebrain: thalamus
relays motor impulses out of brain; directs incoming sensory messages to higher centers
form perception
organization of sensations into meaningful shapes and patterns
number of sound waves, cycles per second, most common sounds are in low frequency
frontal lobe
contains motor cortex, responsible for making plans, initiative, creativity
-contains BROCA'S AREA
functions of sleep
-memory consolidation
-energy conservation
-helps restore bodily functions
the ability to reasonably apply the results to other similar populations
genetic make up of structure of an organism
gestalt principles of perception
alter perception
distort sensory experiences
health hazards of marijuana
alter info processing in the hippocampus
Health hazards of steroids
-liver tumors and cancer
-fluid retention and high blood pressure
-severe acne
the tick of a watch under quiet conditions at 20 feet
heavy users
-respiratory problems
-lower achievement
-increase in delinquent behavior and aggression
-poorer parental relationships
heterozygous genes
two genes in pair are different
altered level of consciousness
-dissociation (when hynotized, truly in another state)
hindbrain: cerebellum
balance and coordination of movement; analyzes sensory info; may play a role in remembering simple skills, problem solving
regulates automatic functioning, circulation, breathing, muscle tone, reflexes (sneezes/salivating)
**cant survive if destroyed**
regulates sleeping, waking, and dreaming
formation and storage of new memories
homozygous genes
two genes in pair are the same
commonly what is meant by color
systematic procedure that typically produces heightened sense of suceptibility
hypnotic subjects
those more likely to be absorbed in fantasy make good hypnotic subjects
indistrial/ organizational psychology
enhance school performance and resolve emotional problems
infants:visual system
born with a functional/intact visual system
-visual accommodation is not as well developed
over half of Americans report it at some time in their lives

interpretation of dreams:
latent content
hidden meaning, wishes, fears, or impulses trying to be expressed
interpretation of dreams:
Manifest Content
(surface level) of dream to understand the latent content 
pupils size is controlled by muscles in the colored iris that enters the eye
just noticeable difference
the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect
body's way of giving feedback about our muscle and joint position
-gives us a sense of coordinated movement
krosnick study
subliminal messages may shape attitudes without conscious awareness
left brain dominance
-touch and movement of right side of body
-vision in the right half of the visual field
-production and comprehension of speech
-reading ability
-mathematical ability
Left hemisphere
in charge of right side of body
left visual field
right hemisphere
-focuses images onto the retina, reversing the image from right to left and top to bottom
-the brain reconstructs it into the image we perceive
may create rage reactions (defensive)
limbic system
loosely interconnected structures involved in emotions; no clear boundaries
Long term risks of alcohol
-liver disease
-brain damage
-heart disease
-birth defects
low levels of light
-cause pupils to dilate
-allows more light and improves optical clarity
-hallucinogen "acid"

THC active ingredient
-problems with learning and memory
-distorted perception
-loss of coordination
-increased heart rate
-panic attacks/anxiety
MDMA is neurotoxic
-sharp increase in body temp
-cause muscle breakdown and kidney and cardiovascular system failure
-brain imaging studies have shown injury to brain, affecting neurons that use seratonin
MDMA or Ecstasy
-psychoactive drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties
Midbrain: reticular formation
modulates muscle reflexes, pain and perception; active in states of arousal
**damage to this area may result in comas**
midbrain: tegmentum
helps function of movement and arousal
vision and hearing
multifactorial transmission
environmental factors interact with genetic factors to produce traits
-falling asleep suddenly or "sleep attacks" which can occur at any time and last a few seconds to 30 minutes
-symptoms appear between puberty and 25
-cataplexy or sudden loss of muscle control is characteristic
-may exper
-stimulant and sedative to CNS
-stress and anxiety affect nicotine tolerance and dependence
-addiction results in withdrawal symptoms
-withdrawal has led to impaired judgement, decrease in psychomotor and cognitive functioning
occipital lobe
contains the visual cortex
mimic endorhpins: increase pleasure and decrease pain
opponent process theory
each type of cone responds to 2 different wavelengths
opponent process theory of color vision
holds that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three oairs of colors
optic chiasm
where optic nerves from each eye cross over and pass info to the opposite side of the brain
parietal lobe
somatosensory cortex: receives info about pain, pressure, touch and temp
the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input
perceptual constancy
objects appear to be relatively stable despite changes in the stimulation of sensory receptors
perceptual schemas
mental representatives or images for comparisons
perceptual set
readiness to percieve stimuli in a particular way
observable or expressed characteristics of an organism
physical dependence
person must continue to take to avoid withdrawal illness
physical effects
-constricted blood vessels
-dilated pupils
-increased heart rate, temp, and blood pressure
physical effects of LSD
-dilated pupils
-increase heart rate/blood pressure
-higher body temp, sweating
-loss of apetite
-dry mouth and tremors
-sensory and emotional changes
pituitary gland
master gland governed by hypothalamus
placebo effect
expectancies can impact subjective experiences
polygenic inheritance
many traits are determined by a combination of gene pairs
mental events that can be brought to our awareness
prefrontal lobe(cortex)
-involved in personality, decision making, social judgement, goal setting, sequencing
-damage results in flattening of emotion and feeling**
psychoactive drugs
a substance that affects perception, mood, thinking, memory or behavior by changing a body's chemistry
psychological affects of steroids
-aggression can increase
-extreme mood swings
-intense jealousy and irritability
-delusions and impaired judgement

psychological dependence
person must continue to take a drug to satisfy emotional cravings
the opening in the center of the iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eye
recessive genes
masked when paired genes are different
REM movement disorders
-usually in sleep the paralysis which normally occurs doesnt function and a person actuallty acts out his dream
-most common in older menand may result in violent behavior
-treated with meds
-unlike with sleep terrors, these people
REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)
-active brainwaves, increased heart rate and blood pressure, limp muscle state.
-80% of REM is dream sleep
-alternates on 90 minute cycles
response set
consistency in answers reflective of a patterned response
Retina contains specialized sensory neurons
-optic disk: a hole in retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye
-blind spot:
retina contains two types of light sensitive receptor cells
Rods and Cones
-translate light waves into nerve impulses which pass through retina
right brain dominance
-touch and movement on left side of body
-vision in the left half of the visual field
-visual and spatial ability
-map reading
-art and music appreciation
-facial recognition
-analysis of non verbal so
Right hemisphere
in charge of left side of body
right visual field
left hemisphere
Risks of MDMA
-depression, confusion, sleep problems, severe anxiety
-muscle tension, teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, chills/sweating
-risk for people with circulatory or heart disease
-some evidence for longer term
-CNS stimulant medication often prescribed for ADHD
-now sold as a street drug illegally
-has effects more potent than caffeine but less than amphetamines
-stimulant effects
  -appetite suppression
surrounding hypnosis increase suggestibility and create expectations
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision
rods and cones
-translate light waves into nerve impulses which pass through the retina
-impulses pass through the optic disk and carry visual info to the brain
-they pass through optic chiasm
color's purity
how diluted it is with black and white
school/educational psychology
staff human service departments in businesses working on issues of morale, job satisfaction, and productivity issues
the stimulation of sense organs
sensory adaptation
a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
Sensory systems:Vision
-normal stimulus for vision is electromagnetic energy or light waves
-light waves are measured in nanometers
-our visual system is sensitive to wavelengths extending from about 700 nanometers(red) to about 400 nanometers(blue-violet)
septal area
pleasure area of brain (animals increase lever pressing when accompanied by electrical impulses sent to area)
seven areas of research study
1. developmental: change and growth over the lifespan
2. social: individual and group behaviors and responses across situations
3. exerimental: conduct lab studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology and co
short term insomnia
poor sleeping for 2-3 weeks caused by ongoing stressors as well as medical problems
signal detection theory
proposes that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a vairety of factors besides stimulus intensity
single-blind study
controls for subject bias by limiting their knowledge
size constancy
objects do not appear to change in size when viewed from diff distances
Sleep Apnea
-A "lack of breath" while sleeping; disrupts sleep patterns
-3 types identified but obstructive apnea is most common and most severe
-muscles at back of throat relax obstructing airway; breathing can actually stop causing awakening
sleep deprivation
-decrease immune functions
-leads to hallucinations and perceptual disorders
-less alert and attentive 
-more irritable
-ability to perform simple tasks declines
sleep talking
-can range from one word to a soliloquey
-no memory of conversation
-usually short term
-sometimes because of stress or illness
sleep terror
-sudden awakening with physical behavior associated with intense fear
-screaming, fighting, trying to escape fear
-episodes last about 15 minutes
-person returns to sleep, unable to recall in the morning
-more common in c
-causes people, usually children, to take nocturnal trips they dont remember but can navigate quite well
-temporary sleep mechanism malfunctions during the deeper stages of sleep
-can run in families
-often abates by puberty
one drop of perfume diffused into entire volume of a six room apartment
social desirability
give answers which are "correct" or "appropriate" and not necesarily true
-subjects interpret their behavior as caused by something other than self
split brain surgery
corpus callosum is severed
-used as a treatment for severe seizure disorders

stages of sleep(non REM sleep)
1. light sleep, small irregular brain waves, muscles relax
2. high peaking waves, sleep spindles, burst of electrical activity
3. deep sleep, delta waves, slow with high peaks
4. pregressively more delta waves (deep sleep)
-man made substances related to male hormones used to treat low levels of testosterone
-abused to enhance performace/improve appearance
steroids for females
-facial hair
-cessation of menstrual cycle
-deepened voice

steroids for males
-shrinking testicles
-reduced sperm count
-prostate cancer
speed up activity in the CNS
stimulus detection
stimulus:any detectable input from the environment
-detectable stimulus depends on who or what is doing the detecting

subliminal perception
can we be unaware of things and have them still have an impact?

summation of spano's beliefs
-hyponosis represents a voluntary action, brought about by expectations
-hypnotic behaviors are highly motivated, goal-directed social behaviors
-hypnosis is not truly an altered state of consciousness
-good hypnotic subjects are m
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temporal lobe
involved in memory, perception, and emotion
-contains auditory cortex and WERNICKE'S AREA
the progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug
the wing of a fly on your cheek from a distance of 1 centimeter
transient insomnia
lasts only a few nights, often due to anxiety or excitement
trichomatic theory
three types of color receptors in the retina
-individual cones are most sensitive to either red, blue, or green
-couldnt explain after images
trichromatic theory of color vision
holds that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths
Twin Studies
-1 in 50 born are twins; numbers increasing
-look at heredity by comparing similarities and differences between identical/fraternal twins
-look at adoption studies of twins reared apart and assess the influence of heredity
mental events inaccessible to our awareness
Various factors involved in hypnosis
-sensory distortions
-disinhibition:make things more comfortable that usually are not (ex: big speech)
-post hypnotic amnesia: some done remember being hypnotsized
various kinds of awareness
-of external events
-of internal sensations
-of oneself as unique to experiences
-of thoughts about experiences
-in the inner ear
-helps with balance and maintaining our equilibrium in space
a candle can be seen at 30 miles on a dark clear night
visual cliff experiments
do we develop depth perception or are we born with it?
visual illusions
most visual illusions occur because of perceptual constancies which usually help us perceive more accurately
ways to combat insomnia
-exercise during the day
-dont use your bed for anything besides sleeping (or bed related activities)
-dont drink caffeinated products before bed
-if you cant sleep, get up and then come back later and try again
Weber's Law
the size of a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulant
Wernicke's area
involved in language comprehension

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