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Marker of visceral malignancy
Acanthosis Nigricans
-thickened & hyperpigmented areas commonly found in flexural areas
Extremely pruritic vesicular lesions assoc. w/ celiac dse.
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
-may respond to a gluten-free diet
Abnormal proliferation of connective tissue of skin scars that results in large raised tumor-like lesions
-more common in African Americans
Black-blue papule w/ irregular borders
Malignant melanoma
-depth of invasion correlates w/ prognosis
Tumor arising from actinic keratosis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Antimelanocyte anitbodies assoc. w/ cell loss in discrete areas of skin
Pearly papules w/ superficial telangiectases
Basal Cell Carcinoma
-almost never metastasizes
Type IV hypersensitivity rxn. in the skin
Contact dermatitis
-primary T-cell- & macrophage-mediated immunity
Benign neoplasm closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma;regresses spontaneously w/o therapy
Premalignant epidermal lesion caused by chronic excessive exposure to sunlight; charact. by rough,scaling,poorly demarcated plaques on the face,neck, upper trunk,or extremities
Actinic Keratosis
May be a marker of visceral malignancy(stomach,lung,breast,uterus);charact. by acanthosis & hyperpigmentation often involving flexural areas
Acanthosis Nigricans
Yellowish papules or nodules composed of focal dermal collections of lipid-laden histiocytes occurring in the eyelids(most common),over tendons or joints;assoc. w/ hypercholesterolemia
Slowly growing,well-differentiated malignant neoplasm histologically resembling dermatofibroma;rarely metastasizes
Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
Extremely common benign neoplasm of older persons manifesting as sharp demarcated raised papules or plaques w/ a typical pasted-on appearance occuring on the head,trunk,& extremities;also called senile keratosis
Seborrheic Keratosis
Benign neoplasm presenting as a firm nodule(sometimes w/ pigmented acanthosis);charact. by interwinning bundles of collagen & fibroblast;termed fibrous histiocytoma when histiocytes are prominent
Pigmented nevi present at birth; charact. by nodular foci of dendritic, highly pigmented melanocytes in the dermis;blue external appearance results from the dermal location
Blue Nevus
Contagious viral infxn. transmitted by direct contact affecting mostly children & adolescents;due to a DNA poxvirus;demonstrates umbilicated,dome-shaped papules
Molluscum Contagiosum
A benign papilloma caused by certain strains of HPV(distinct from those assoc. w/ gynecologic neoplasms); charact. by vacuolated cells(koilcytes) in the granular cell layer of the epidermis
Verruca Vulgaris(common wart)
Extremely common lesion often occurring on the face near the eyelids,neck, trunk,or axilla;consist of a central connective tissue core covered by stratified squamous epithelium
Acrochordon(fibroepithelial polyp,skin tag)
Dome shaped nodule that is filled w/ soft gray white material;lined by stratified squamous epithelium & is filled w/ keratinous material;no assoc. w/ sebaceous glands
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst
Atypical,irregular pigmented lesion w/ disorderly proliferation of melanocytes,dermal fibrosis,& subjacent dermal lymphocytic infiltration;may transform into malignant melanoma;may be familial(autosomal dominant inheritance;inc. % for conversion to m
Dysplastic Nevus
A nonfamilial precursor of lentigo maligna melanoma;an irregular macular pigmented lesion on sun-exposed skin; charact. by atypical melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction
Lentigo Maligna(Hutchinson freckle)
Pigmented macule caused by melanocytic hyperplasia in the epidermis
Pigmented nevi classified as a benign tumor or hamartoma derived from melanocytes w/c occur in clusters or nests;3 types-junctional(confined to epidermal-dermal junct.),compound(epidermal-dermal junct. & dermis), intradermal(w/ in the dermis, nonpigm
Nevocellular nevus(common mole)
Pigmented nevi occuring often in children;benign;charact. by spindle-shaped cells;can be confused w/ malignant melanoma
Spitz Nevus(juvenile melanoma)
Melanin synthetic defect involving the eyes,skin,& hair;predisposes to actinic keratosis,basal & squamous cell carcinoma,& malignant melanoma due to sensitivity to sunlight;autosomal recessive
Oculocutaneous Albinism
-subclassified as:Tyrosinase-neg. albinism(failure of conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine,DOPA)& Tyrosinase-positive albinism(unknown cause)
Acquired loss of melanocytes in discrete areas of skin that appear as depigmented white patches;no relationship to albinism;may be autoimmune in origin or assoc. other autoimmune dse.;may be caused by destruction of melanocytes by toxic intermediates of
Produced by an increase of melanin pigment w/in basal keratinocytes
An acantholytic disorder charact. by formation of severe intraepidermal bullae w/c 1st occur in the oral mucosa later spreading~rupture leaving large denuded surfaces(subject to secondary infxn.);autoimmune disorder charact. by IgG autoantibodies directe
Pemphigus Vulgaris
-charact. by prominent intraepidermal acantholysis & sparing of the basal layer;can be fatal
Autoimmune disorder charact. by IgG autoantibodies directed against epidermal basement memb.;resembles pemphigus vulgaris but less severe; subepidermal bullae,w/ charact. inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils in the surrounding dermis
Bullous Pemphigoid
Recurrent pruritic blistering disorder on the extensor surface of knees & elbows,scalp,upper back,sacral area(blisters occur in groups);assoc.w/ gluten-sensitive enteropathy(celiac dse.);demonstrates IgA deposits & dermal micoabscesses w/ neutrop
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Skin disorder w/c presents w/ multiple types of lesions(macules,papules, vesicles);assoc. w/ a "target"lesion resembling an archer's bull's-eye; involves hypersensitivity to coexistent infectious agents,various drugs, concomitant tissue disorde
Erythema Multiforme
Childhood viral infection charact. by fever & generalized vesicular lesions; immune individuals develop herpes zoster(shingles)w/c are painful skin eruption distributed along the dermatomes corresponding to the affected dorsal root ganglia
-varicella-zoster virus may remain latent for years in dorsal root ganglia
Separation of epidermal cells one from the other;cells appear to float w/in extracellular fluid
Accentuation of skin markings caused by scratching
Growth phase of Malignant Melanoma
1)Radial(inital phase)-growth in all directions(mostly lat. w/in the epidermis & papillary zone of the dermis);prominent lymphocytic response; no metastasis;common clinical cure 2)Vertical(later phase)-growth into the reticular dermis or beyond;prognosis varies w/ depth of lesion;lymphatic or hematogenous spread may occur
Chronic infl. process charact. by erythematous papules & plaques w/ characteristic silver scaling;sharply demarcated lesions;often involves the extensor surface of elbows,knees,scalp, & sacral area;nonpruritic;epidermal proliferation w/ acanthosi
Flat,nonpalpable lesion of a different color than the surrounding skin;less than 1 cm in diameter
Similar to macule;larger than 1cm
Small,palpable,elevated skin lesion less than 1cm in diameter
Similar to papule;larger than 1cm in diameter
Large fluid-containing blister;0.5cm or more in diameter
Blister containg pus
Dried exudate from a vesicle,bulla,or pustule
Increase thickness of the stratum corneum
Hyperkeratosis w/ retention of nuclei of keratinocytes
Thickening of the epidermis
Epidermal intercellular edema w/ widening of intercellular spaces
Common skin tumor charact. by invasion of dermis by sheets & islands of neoplastic epidermal cells,often w/ keratin "pearls"
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
-<5% metastasis
Malignancy most common in fair-skinned persons w/c arises from melanocytes or nevus cells;often assoc. w/ excessive exposure to sunlight
Malignant Melanoma
-clinical variants(Lentigo maligna melanoma,Superficial spreading melanoma,Nodular melanoma,Acral-lentiginous melanoma)
A vascular pedunculated lesion charact. by numerous capillaries & edematous stroma w/c often develops following trauma;common in skin or mucous memb.
Granuloma Pyogenicum
An abn° proliferation of the connective tissue,w/ deranged arrangement of collagen fibers resulting in large, raised,tumor-like scars following trauma to the skin;genetically susceptible;recur after resection; common in African lineage
Common skin tumor assoc. w/ excessive exposure to sunlight w/coccurs in sun-exposed areas(face,back of the hands); locally invasive;often originates in pre-existing actinic keratosis;assoc. w/ chemical carcinogens,radiation or X-ray exposure;presents w/
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Clinical variant of malignant melanoma w/c occurs on sun-exposed skin;radial growth phase predominates;often develops from preexisting lentigo maligna(Hutchinson freckle)
Lentigo maligna melanoma
Most common clinical variant of malignant melanoma;lesion is irregularly bordered w/ variegated pigmentation;occurs often in the trunk & ext.;radial growth predominates
Superficial spreading melanoma
Clinical variant of malignant melanoma w/ poorest prognosis;begins w/ vertical growth phase
Nodular melanoma
Clinical variant of malignant melanoma w/c appears often on the hands & feet of dark-skinned persons
Acral-lengtiginous melanoma
Capillary hemangioma(small,bld.-filled capillaries lined w/ a single layer of endothelium)w/c manifest as a purple-red area on the face & neck
Port-wine stain
Capillary hemangioma(small,bld.-filled capillaries lined w/ a single layer of endothelium)w/c manifest as bright-red raised lesion
Strawberry hemangioma
Capillary hemangioma(small,bld.-filled capillaries lined w/ a single layer of endothelium)w/c manifest as a small, dome-shaped red papule
Cherry hemangioma
Port-wine stain of the face,ipsilateral glaucoma,vascular lesions of the ocular choroid tissue,& extensive hemangiomatous involvement of meninges; manifest as convulsions,mental retardation,& retinal detachment
Sturge-Weber synd.

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