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Study: More people watching happy film solved problem than those watching neutral because they were more flexible and adaptive
Isen at al., 1987
people watching a happy film...
...solved problem more often than those watching neutral
Study: People (especially anxious ones) focus attention on negative stimuli
Study: Anxious people are slower to name a color when it's threat-related
anxious people are slower... name colors when the word is threat related
Study: When a dot was shown after a negative word, anxious people had faster response time (no differences for neutral words)
Matthew's attentional bias study
When a dot was shown after a negative word, anxious people had...
...faster response times
Study: Phobics respond physically to backwardly masked stimuli
Ohman & Soares, 1994
Phobics respond physically to...
backwardly masked stimuli
Study: Higher SCR for fear-relevant stimuli when paired with shock for non-phobic stimuli
Ohman & Soares, 1993
Studies: People pick out angry face in a crowd fastest and most accurately
Hansen & Hansen; Ohman et al.
Study: People seeing emotional pictures remembered central details better, peripheral details worse
Christianson & Loftus
People seeing emotional pictures remembered ____ details better, ____ details worse
central, peripheral
possible mechanism for attention in emotional situation
Adrenaline enhances memory consolidation via amygdala
Study: People think their memories are right, but many are wrong
Neisser & Harch
Study: Flashbulb memory occurs in response to novel/unusual/surprising/important event
Finkenauer et al
Study: Associative network theory researcher
Memories (especially emotional ones) have associations with, cue other memories
associative network theory
mood-congruent memory
learn things congruent with mood
associative network theory
Memories (especially emotional ones) have associations with, cue other memories
mood state-dependent memory
remember things congruent with mood
evidence for innate quality of emotions
present in first 24 hours, don't need functional cortex
Study: Normal, anencephalic, hydrocephalic babies make similar expressions
dynamic theory of infant emotions: adult/children
adults and infants don't have same emotional experience
differential theory of infant emotions: adult/children
adults and infants have same emotional experience
researcher of dynamic systems
researcher of differential systems
Study: newborns can imitate facial expressions
field et al.
when does distress emerge?
when does a meaningful smile emerge?
2 months
when does sadness emerge?
3 months
when does true anger emerge?
4 months
researcher: infant expression after shots is distress before 4 months and anger after
when does surprise emerge?
5-6 months
when does fear of collision emerge?
8-9 months
when does fear of heights emerge?
8-9 months
fear of height through visual cliff researcher
when does fear of strangers/separation emerge?
10-14 months
4 stages of empathy
global, egocentric, other's feelings can differ from own, empathy for another's life experiences
sense of self require for ___ but not ____
embarassment, fear
researcher: intro/extroversion heritable
basic emotion that differs in izard's from eckman's
researcher: babies can recognize and make basic emotions
researcher: Communicative dance between mother and baby
Study: Given adrenaline, people remember better
Harlow: Maternal separation creates...
Abnormal sexuality, cold mothering
Harlow's conclusion
Affective needs are important as basic needs
Bowlby's conclusion
Attachment is evolutionary and develops over time
Bowlby's 4 stages of attachment
Preattachment, attachment in the making, clear-cut attachment, goal-corrected partnership
Preattachment age
0-6 weeks
attachment in the making age
2-7 months
clear-cut attachment age
7-24 months
goal-corrected partnership age
2+ years
in preattachment...
...there is no preference for the primary caregiver
in attachment in the making...
...the child can distinguish primary caregiver
in clear-cut attachment...
...the child uses the caregiver for comfort and as a secure base
in goal-corrected partnership...
...the child is autonomous and can recognize the parent's goals
researcher: strange situation to test bowlby
ainsworth's attachment types
secure, insecure (ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized)
what percent of children are secure?
what percent of children are insecure ambivalent?
what percent of children are insecure avoidant?
what percent of children are insecure disorganized?
securely attached children
some separation distress, seek caregiver, can be comforted
insecure ambivalently attached children
excessive separation distress, seek caregiver, can't be comforted
insecure avoidantly attached children
little separation distress, don't seek caregiver
insecure disorganized attached children
contradictory, confused behavior during return
emotions of secure children
full range
emotions of ambivalent children
more negative
emotions of avoidant children
less overall
if a mother doesn't comfort her infant, it will become...
if a mother is highly sensitive, it will become...
if a mother is inconsistently sensitive, it will become...
depressed mothers have what kind of children?
In Germany, what kind of attachments do children have?
many avoidant, few ambivalent
In Japan, what kind of attachments do children have?
few avoidant, many ambivalent
Least to most frustration behaviors at 5 years in different attachment types
secure, ambivalent, avoidant
Least to most positive affect at 2 years in different attachment types
ambivalent (none), avoidant, secure
what % of securely attached kids have behavior problems?
what % of stable insecurely attached kids have behavior problems?
what kind of disorders do avoidant children have?
what kind of disorders do ambivalent children have?
non-criers have more ____ activation
left frontal
criers have more _____ activation
right frontal
kagan's types of temperament
inhibited, uninhibited
are more children uninhibited or inhibited?
chess and thomas's types of temperament
easy, difficult, slow-to-warm up
caspi's types of temperament
undercontrolled, inhibited, well-adjusted
eckman's basic emotions
fear, surprise, disgust, anger, sadness, joy
who said that expressions of emotions are only for social purposes?
researcher: social constructivism
social constructivism says that...
...emotions are products of culture, and are different for everyone, every time
averill's parts of emotion
subjective experience, expression, physiology, coping
researcher: using toddler temperament to predict adult behaviors
Researcher: People who rearranged sentence with “bother” interrupted partner, those who rearranged with “respect” didn’t
Researcher:Took longer to walk to elevator when rearranging sentences with elderly-themed words
Study: Only suboptimal affective primes (those you’re not aware of) affected impression (goodness/badness) of a Chinese character
Murphy and Zajonc
Study: Attribute more negative personality traits to characters following negative vs. happy/neutral suboptimal faces
Researcher: Smiled most when watching video with friend or with friend watching in other room, some when friend doing something else, and least when alone (independent of actual feeling)
Researcher: Those with high anxiety prefer being with someone else when being shocked, prefer having other person being shocked too
Researcher: Most emotional experiences are shared, depending on how disruptive event is. Willingly reactivating components of emotion
Researcher: Writing about emotional events improves health, psychological well-being, success
Researcher: Those in painful state wanted to hurt confederate more, those not in painful state wanted to hurt less (discussing business opportunity).
Researcher: Presence of a weapon increases punishments.
Researcher: Regulated (stable) couples increase positivity throughout conversation, unregulated (unstable) increase negativity and have way more negativity overall
Gottman's 5 types of couples
stable (validators, volatiles, avoiders); unstable (hostile, hostile detached)
characteristics of validators
Show attention/support
characteristics of volatiles
Show lots of emotion, good and bad
Characteristics of avoiders
Avoid talking about conflict
Characteristics of hostile detached
When they communicate at all, the communications are negative
Study: When masking disgust, suppression showed more blinking, BP, and SCR, less body movement, but didn’t affect intensity of disgust
Gross & Levenson
What is more effective than masking in changing emotion?

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