# Texes EC-4

All four domains

## Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
Galaxy
is a group of billions of stars, dust and gases in space held together by gravity.
Mollusks
is an invertebrate with a soft body, protected by a shell. Ex: Octopus
Scientific Methods for Science inquiry
1. State the problem, 2. Formulate the hypothesis, 3. collect data , 4. interpret the data, 5. state the conclusion.
Solution
Is a type of mixture in which one substance dissolves in another. The particles of the two substances are mixed.
Ice melts
At 32 degrees F. -- 0 degrees Celsius
Kilo-
k, 1000, thousand
Isaac Newton
Discovered the three laws of motion. He also introduce the concept of gravity. Showed that white light contains many colors.
Measuring Mass
Use Kilogram scale (large can of Juice, block of cheese), Use grams on balance scale ( small objects as: Coin, marbles pencils), use milligrams on balance scale ( for very small objects: pebbles)
deka-
da, 10, ten
Liquid
Is a form of matter that has no definite shape but does have a definite volume. It takes the shape of the container that holds it. Such as (natural) lake or ocean/(Made-made) a bottle.
Electric current
is the continuous flow of negative charges usually through a wire.
Cubic Meter
Is a unit for measuring the volume of a solid.
Spores
Are tiny cells that carry the genetic material of the plant and can grow into new plants. ( do not make seeds)
Producer
is a living thing that uses sunlight to make sugar. That only organisms that are producers are green plants.
Warm Blooded Vertebrates
Birds, Mammals
work
It is the result of a force moving an object.
Metamorphosis
refers to the way that insects develop , grow and change form.
Renewable resources
is a resource that can be replaced within a reasonably short time. Ex: air, water, trees, sun and fish
Collecting and interpreting data
Occurs when observations and measurements are gathered into graphs, tables, charts ad then used to solve problems or answer questions.
is a inherited behavior that helps an organism survive. Ex: beaver building a dam.
Stamens
Is a part of the flower that makes pollen. They are very thin and are the male part of the flower.
Large Mass objects
are measured in kilograms (1000 grams)
Asteroid
is a rocky object orbiting the sun between the planets. It rotates on its axis, and orbits the sun.
One ton
2,000 pounds
Three feet
One Yard
Ferns
Are large plants that have roots, stems, and leaves. They do not make any seeds but they produce their spores on the underside of their leaves.
Experimental bias
Occurs when that which scientist expect to observe affects what they actually do observe. Different scientists should conduct independent studies of the same question.
Stratosphere
is where jets aircraft fly because the atmosphere is very stable at this altitude.
Stratus Clouds
Are low level clouds that form flat, gray sheets, rain or snow may fall from these clouds.
Nonstandard tools of measurement
Marbles, Body parts to measure length, sticks.
Solid
Is matter that has a definite shape and define volume.
Gram
Is the basic unit used for measuring mass.
Melting point (Solid to a liquid)
When a type of matter's melting point is reached, matter changes from a solid to a liquid.
crust
is the thin, solid , outer layer of the earth.
Seeding
Photosynthesis occurs, stored food in the seed leaves is used up, they dry up and drop off. More leaves grow from buds on the stem as the plant grows taller.
Full Moon
The entire half of the moon facing earth is lighted. Moon looks like a full circle.
Spiny-skinned invertebrates
invertebrates are salt-water organisms that have two body opening, a digestiven system, heart and blood vessels. Ex: Starfish
Lens
is a transparent object that has at least one curved surface. when light moves from ir into a lens , light refracts (bends) to from an image.
Jonas Salk
Introduced the First vaccine for polio.
Carnivore
is a cnsumer that only eats other consumers. Ex: tiger, owls
inferring
Reaching a conclusion based on observations made, observation skills and the ability to draw on past experiences are needed.
Convex
is a lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges. Objects appear larger, used in microscopes and telescopes
Pluto
is the smallest planet. and is frozen solid.
Pollination
is the movement of pollen from the stamen to the pistil.
birds
are warm-blooded vertebrates that have feathers that cover their bodies, a pair of wings and a pair of legs. Ex: hummingbird
Physical Properties of Matter
Mass, weight, density, volume
Sedimentary Rock
Forms from pieces of weathered rock and other materials, such as shells and sand, and are carried through water, wind, ice. Ex: limestone
milli-
m, 0.001 , thousandth
Gravity
Is the force that pulls any two objects toward one another. The pull of gravity on a heavy object is greater than the pull of gravity on a light object. A
Static electricity
is a type of electricity produced when objects gain or lose negative charges. Ex: two balloons rub on a sleeve- both negative charges.
Force
Is a push or pull on an object that causes the object to start moving, speed up , slow down, stop, or change direction.
Tables
Arranges data so that it is easier to understand. Tables allows data to be classified and compare. (title column/ row heading , columns/ row)
Water boils
At 212 degrees F --- 100 degrees C.
Milky Way
is the galaxy in which our solar system lies.
Science inquiry method
if a data collection does not support the hypothesis, the experiment continues forward. The hypothesis should not be altered or the experiment stopped.
Meteor
is a piece of rock or dust from space that is pulled into the earth's atmosphere from its orbit around the sun. Most of them burn as they enter the atomosphere.
12 Inches
One foot
Mixture
Is a combination of two or more different kinds of matter, each keeping its own properties
Sexual reproduction
Reproduction in most many celled organisms involves two parents that produce special reproductive cells-egg cells and sperm cells.
kilometer
Use for long distances (city to city or place to place)
Pistil
Is the female part of the flower that makes eggs. Egg cells in the pistil will grow into seeds when they join with sperm in pollen.
Group of vertebrates
Cold-blooded and warm blooded
Greenhouse effect
is the process by which gases in the atmosphere absorb heat from the earth's surface and keep the earth warm. Without it the earth would colder.
Physical Change
Is a change in matter involving size, shape, or state without making a new substance. Ex: Metal being filed.
Sound Energy
is produced by vibrating matter carried by air, water or other matter. It travels in waves.
Mechanical Energy
is the energy an object has because it has the potential to move or because it is moving. It can be potential or kinetic energy.
Natural selection
is the theory that states those living organism best adapted to their environment will be the ones likely to survive and reproduce.
Hardness
relates to the resistance of the mineral to being scratched. (Talc) is softest, (Diamond) hardest
Standard tools of measurement
Are used when precise and reliable measurements are needed.
Constellation
Is a group of star's that from a pattern.
Transparent Material
When visible light strikes transparent material, it passes through the material. Ex: glass
Flowering Plant
largest group of plants that make seeds. (Catcus, grass, sunflowers)
Making operational definitions
Is a description of an object or an event based on personal experiences with the object or event.
Rotation
is one full spin of the earth around its axis. A complete rotation takes 24 hours.
Water cycle
is the movement of water from the earth;s surface into the air and back to the earth again.
Exosphere
The upper limit of the atmosphere (space)
Gregor mendel
Outlined the methods of Heredity.
One cup
8 ounces
Plants structures that help them adapt to their environment by allowing them to receive sunlight or conserve water. Ex: long, shallow roots the absorbs a lot e=water quickly (cacti)
Measuring Matter
Cubic Meter, Liter, Graduated cylinder for measuring volume of liquids and irregularly shaped solids.
Elliptical Orbit
An orbit that is long and flat.
Deforestation
The clearing of large areas of trees, animals lose their habitats. and it affects the ecosystem food web.
Spiders
Belong to the arthropod group. They have two body sections, four pairs of legs and no antennae. Live on the land. They are not insects.
Hibernation
an animals metabolic processes slows down , to survive the winter weather, deep sleep.
Science Portfolios
Students selects its contents and reflects on the reasons for that selection. Student work produced during a particular unit. sample writings.
Axis
is the imaginary line that passes through the centr of the earth from pole to pole.
10 millimeters (mm)
1 centimeters (cm)
Chemical Weathering
the substance that makes up the rock and takes place in the rock. Ex: Limestone: is in contact with water and carbon dioxide deep within the earth, caves can form.
Hecto-
h, 100, hundred
Layers of the Earth
crust, mantle core, fault and plate tectonics.
Cumulonimbus Clouds
clouds form gather and become tall. They extend through all the layers of the atmosphere. Known as thunderstorm clouds causes lots of rain.
Atmosphere
five layers: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere
Ecosystem
is all the living and nonliving things in an environment and how they interact. A terrarium in another example.
Roundworms
is a worm with a round body pointed at both ends. They live inside plants and animals. Ex: hookworms
Antoni Van Leeuwwnhoek
Discovered bacteria with the microscope.
Chemical Energy
is the energy that comes from chemical changes. Ex: found in gas and coal.
Fault
is a crack in the earth's crust along which rocks move.
Parallel Circuit
There is more than one path along which an electric current flows. Ex: holiday lights.
Conductor
is a material through which an electric current passes easily. Ex: Copper is a good condeuctor.
Heat Energy
is the energy of the movement of atoms and molecules. The more rapidly the atoms move, the greater their heat energy.
Science Journals
describes science experiences, they record data, respond to questions, express opinions. Students self-reflect and have metacognitive thinking.
Stimulus
is a change in the environment that causes a response.
Bar Graph
Are used to compare information about groups. Compares data that doesn't change continually.
Petals
They surround and protect the parts of the flower that make the seed. They attract bees .
Amphibians
are vertebrates that live part of their lives in the water and part on land. Ex: frogs
George Washington Carver
Inventor, found way to make soybeans into rubber, peanuts and cotton into road-paving material.
Have structures (appendages) or exhibit certain behaviors that help them survive in their habitats.
Outer Planets
They are gaseous. Ex: (JUSN) jupiter, saturn, Uranus, Neptune (except Pluto)
Balance Scale
Mass can measured by this.
One meter
100 centimeters---- 10 decimeters
Potential Energy
is stored energy. It is the energy that an object has that can cause it to move. Ex: Car on top of a ramp.
Sponges
is a simple invertebrate that has one body opening and small holes all over it body. Ex: they in the ocean attached to rocks.
Germinating seed
Stage where plant starts to sprout.
Graphs
A data that makes it easier to interpret and analyze. It shows the relationship of one variable to another.
Fertilization
Occurs when an egg and a sperm cell unite to form a fertilized egg.
Natural resources
are useful things the earth produces. Ex: air water, soil , trees and minerals.
Sources of Bias
Sample size (too small), sample selection (not fair), conditions under which the experiment occurred (conditions were not kept the same), scientist expectations.
Very small mass objects
are measured in milligrams (1/1000 of a gram)
Fracture and Cleavage
are properties that describe how a mineral breaks as well as the shape a mineral from when broken.
Half Moon
Half of the part of the moon facing the earth is light. Half of the moon is facing the earth is dark.
Warm-blooded
are warm-blooded animals are vertebrates whose body temperature remains the same regardless of the outside temperature.
Inherited Trait
is a characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring.
Troposphere
is the first layer above the earth's surface and contains half of the earth's atmosphere. Weather occurs in this layer.
A Planet's year
is the time it takes to resolve once around the sun.
Dominant Trait
is a characteristic of a living organism that hides other characteristics.
Closed circuit
is a closed path through which an electric current flows. Ex: a light switch up and the light on.
Dormant seed
resting stage of the seed.
Life cycle of a flowering plant
Dormant seed-Germinating seed-seedling-Mature Plant
Luster
is the ay a mineral reflects light. Ex: gold
L x W x H
Finding the volume of a rectangular prism (box). In cubic meters because the box is a 3 dimensional.
Erosion
is the moving of weathered rock and soil. It break down the rock, flowing water, wind erosion, desert, and dunes.
Estimation
Is form of prediction a number value and is H.O.T.S, and is a quick observation when a precise measurement is not needed.
Life cycle of insects
Metamorphosis, incomplete metamorphosis, complete metamorphosis
Hollow-bodied animals
is a simple invertebrate with one body opening that is surround by tentacles that sting. Ex: Jellyfish
Direct development
Animal that keeps the same body features throughout their lives, they only grow in size. Ex: Bear
Plant classification
are classified based on how they reproduce.
One pint
2 cups
Barometer
measures air pressure and predicts changes in weather. Is in a circular dial in a sealed box.
Inexhaustible
is a resource that cannot be used up. Ex: water, air, sun.
Types of Soil
sand, clay, topsoil
One mile
5,280 feet
Lithosphere
is the solid surface of the earth, includes the continents, ocean floors, rocks, soils, and minerals.
States of Matter
Solid, gas, liquid
Opaque Material
allows no light to pass through. Ex: aluminum foil.
Magnet
Is anything that pulls iron and steel to it.
Independent/manipulated variable
Is a variable that may be changed in an experiment
Friction
is a force that slows the motion of moving objects. Friction occurs when two objects rub against each other. Friction produces heat energy.
exoskeleton
Hard outer skeleton
Energy
is the ability to do work. Work is needed to move an object.
A planet's day
is the time it takes to rotate once on its axis.
Endoskeleton
is the hard support structure inside the body of vertebrates, made of cartilage and bone.
Global warning
is an increase in the earth's temperature caused by increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Conservation of resources
is the act of keeping as they are. (reducing, reusing , recycling)
Translucent Material
When visible light strikes translucent material, some light passes through but it difficult to see details. Ex; Wax paper.
Conifer
Have needlelike leaves that produce seeds inside cones. (Shrubs, trees)
Ovary
Is the bottom part of the pistil in which seeds form.
Electrical Energy
is the energy that comes from the flow of electricity. Ex: flashlight
Kinetic Energy
Is the energy of motion. It is the energy an object has when it is moving. Ex: child pushes the car down the ramp.
Visible spectrum
is the only from of radiant energy that is visible to the human eye. Wave lengths that appear to the human eye.
Weather Vane
shows the direction the wind is blowing.
Orbit
The earth moves around the sun in a path. The force of gravity between the earth and the sun keeps the earth in its orbit.
Alexander Fleming
Produced substance that killed bacteria called Penicillin. First antibiotic.
Wind Sock
shows the direction that the wind is blowing and the speed.
Nonstandard units of measurement
Yield inexact measurements and may not be reliable over repeated trails.
Louis Pasteur
Invented process of pasteurization. Developed a vaccine for rabies.
Comet
is a large chunk of ice, dust and gas that revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit, orbit that is long and flat. It has a tail.
Invertebrates
animals without backbones
Weathering
is the breaking and changing of rocks. They are broken down by air, ice, water, chemicals and living things.
reptiles
are vertebrates hat have a dry, scaly skin that resists water loss and protects the body. Ex: snakes
Photosynthesis
occurs as the new leaves trap energy form the sun and make sugar.
Light and lenses
Light bends when it moves from one medium to another. Light rays do not bend when they move through air.
Igneous Rock
forms from magma that cools beneath the earth's surface. Ex: Granite
Electricity
is a form of energy. All matter contains tiny electrical particles called charges.
Control variable
Is a variable that is held constant throughout the experiment.
Meteorite
Ia meteor that reaches the ground. Some hit the earth hard to make craters, in the earth's surface.
Flat worms
Invertebrates, is a worm with one body opening and long, flattened body. They live inside other animals. Ex: Tapeworms
Measuring Density
Is the concentration of matter in an object. Density can be found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume. D=M/V
Sources of Heat Energy
Burning gas, coal, wood, - sun - friction- electric current.
Mohs scale
was developed to compare the hardness of minerals.
Gills
Are structures fish have that pick up oxygen from the water.
Chemical change
Occurs when atoms link together in new ways to form new substances with new properties
Triangular prisms bend
the white light, it separates into bans of colors. (refracts)
Dominant Gene
is a gene that prevents the expression of another gene.
One gallon
4 quarts
Metamorphic Rock
forms when igneous or sedimentary rocks are subjected to heat and pressure in the earth. When limestone is subject to heat and pressure (marble).
Measuring Volume
Use liters in a liter container (for large amounts of liquid: milk/ juice containers) use milliliters in a graduated cylinder (for small amounts of liquid: for amount needed in recipe)
Water freezes
At 32 degrees Fahrenheit --- O degrees celsius
Cirrus Clouds
Formed high in the sky where the temperature is extremely cold. The clouds looked wispy. Indicate that warm weather is on the way.
Migration
is the movement of an animal from one location to another as the seasons change. Ex: Monarch butterflies
Anemometer
Measures exact wind speed. has 3 or 4 cups attached to the top of a pole. When the wind blows fast and spins quickly.
Nonrenewable resources
is a resource that cannot to replaced after it is used. Ex: minerals
Lunar Eclipse
Occurs when the earth comes between the moon and the sun.
is the energy that travels as waves and moves through empty space. Ex: energy from sun travels as radiant energy.
Physical weathering
Breaks rocks apart but does not change their substance. It may caused by freezing water, waves, wind and plant root.
Liter
Is a unit for measuring the volume of a liquid.
Cumulus Clouds
Clouds form when warm, moist air moves into the sky. It indicates fair weather.
Matter
Is anything, living and nonliving, that has mass and takes up space. It changes from one state to another when it is cooled or heated beyond a certain temperature. Matter can change forms but it can never be created or destroyed. The total amount of matter in a particular space never changes even though chemical or physical changes occur ,
Simple machine
Inclined plane, wedge, pulley, wheel an axle, lever, screw.
Line Graph
Shows the relationship between two variables. The independent variables (goes to horizontal axis: x-axis)--Dependent goes on the vertical axis (y-axis).
Mesosphere
Meteors burn up in this altitude.
Solar Eclipse
occurs when the moon comes between the sun and the earth.
variable
Is something that can vary or change in a situation.
Star
is a hot ball of glowing gases. That produces light and heat.
Segmented Worms
is a worm with a body that is divided into many parts. Complex, have heart, blood vessels and nervous system. Ex: Earthworm
Magnetic Field
is the space around a magnet where magnetism acts.
Volume
Is the amount of space that matter takes up.
Rain Gauge
measures how much rain or other rain has fallen in a particular spot.
Revolution
As the earth spins on its axis, it revolves around the sun. It takes 365 days for the earth to revolve around the sun.
Nuclear Energy
is the energy produced when an atom spits or when two atoms join to form on atom. Nuclear energy is used to produce electrical energy.
Responses in plants
Is a reaction of an organism to a change in the environment. Plants response to stimuli are from external sources. These external sources may be light, moisture and temperature.
Mosses
Plants that do not have stems and roots. They grow close to the ground ( are small in size)and in the shady places. They produce spores and do not make seeds.
sepals
Are the leaf-like parts of the flower buds. They are usually green in color.
Incomplete metamorphosis
egg stage (female insect lays eggs), Nymph stage ( eggs hatch into nymphs, look like small adults, do not have wings, shed or molt exoskeletons(outer casings)), Adult stage (stop molting and grow wings)
Inner planets
They have surfaces that are rocky. Ex: (MEVM) Mercury, venus, earth, and mars.
Fertilization
Occurs after the pollen grain reaches the pistil. Then pistil grows a thin tube to the ovary.
Open circuit
is a open path through which electric current does not flow. A switch can be used to open a circuit and cause the electric current to stop flowing. Ex: a light switch down and the light off.
Vertebrates
animals with backbones.
Gene
Contains the code for all the traits an organism inherits.
Evaporation
occurs as the sun's energy causes water on the earth's surface to evaporate. Water evaporates in the form of water vapor. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air.
Animal Classification
types of groups Vertebrates and invertebrates
Mantle
Crust sit of on the mantle. Is the middle layer of the earth. it is so hot that rock nearly melt.
cent-
c, 0.01, hundredth
Metric System of Measurement
It provides standard measurements that all scientists around the world can understand.
Electromagnet
is a temporary magnet made when electric current flows through a coiled wire.
Inertia
Is the tendency of an object to keep moving if it is in motion or to stay at rest if it is not moving. Ex: A ball - will be in air until gravity makes it come down.
Recessive Trait
Is a characteristic of a living organism that is hidden. A gene that carries the information for recessive characteristic.
Jupiter
is the largest planet.
deci-
d , 0.1, tenth
Graduated cylinder for measuring the volume of irregularly shaped solids
water with an object. The difference is the volume of the solid. It is the amount of space the solid takes up.
Concept Maps
Shows how ideas are linked together. Help organize information about a topic . They break down in small detail part to show the individual data.
Rubic
helps a teacher evaluate work that is difficult to grade.
Alfred Wegener
Proposed the theory of continental drift that states that all land on the earth was once a single mass but broke apart and drifted away.
Incomplete and complete Metamorphosis
Two types of metamorphosis
Arthropods
Are invertebrates with jointed legs and exoskeleton that protects the body. Ex: lobsters
Decomposer
is a consumer that puts material from dead plants back into the air, water, soil. Ex: earthworms
100 centimeters (cm)
1 meter (m)
Experimental Approach
The children formulate and test hypothesis. This approach teaches children to define and control variables in experimental designs, conduct experiments and interpret data.
How energy flows in an ecosystem
is the flow of energy within ecosystem. the food chain is a cycle. The produce (green plants) store energy in the form of sugar Some of theat energy is passed on to consumers in a sequential relationship. A food chain begins with a producer.
One quart
2 pints
Complete Metamorphosis
(Egg stage) female insect lays eggs, (Larva stage) larva hatch, look like worm-like, Caterpillars, (Pupa stage)(resting of the insect (cocoon), they do not eat while they are inside the cocoons, (Adult stage) the insect breaks free from the cocoon and becomes an adult. Butterfly
Robert Hooke
Saw the cells of organisms through a microscope.
Scavenger
is n animal (consumer) that eats dead animals. Ex: vulture
Inquiry Tools
Are those skills in which students are actively investigating their environment.
Recessive Gene
is a gene whose expression is prevented by a dominant gene. A trait is expressed only when an organism inherits two recessive genes for that trait, one from each parent. (Blonde hair/ brown hair)
Ozone
is a gas that is a form of oxygen. It protects living things on the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
One hectometer
100 meters
Mammals
are warm-blooded vertebrates that usually have hair and feed milk to their young. They all breathe air. Ex: Whales (marsupials)
Mature plant
A plant that is fully grown and blooms.
Density
Is how much mass is in a certain volume of matter. (vinegar settles at the bottom and oil rises to the top. Vinegar is denser than the oil.
Tools to Organizing Data
Tables, Graphs, Concept Maps
Cold Blooded Vertebrates
Fish, Reptiles, amphibians
1,000 meters
1 kilometer (km)
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy is never lost. It can never be created or destroyed. The only thing that changes is the form in which energy appears.
Plate Tectonics
is the theory that states the earth's surface is broken into plates that move. They can cause earthquakes, volcanic eruptions.
Series Circuit
only path through which the electric current can flow. Ex: Flashlight.
Inertia
resistance to change in some other physical property. To remain unchanged.
Millimeters
Use for very small lengths (finger tip)
Weather Balloon
are used by scientists to send instruments high into the atmosphere to collect information about weather.
Herbivore
is a consumer that only eats plants. Ex: deer, rabbits.
Rock Cycle
Sedimentary rock-Igneous-Metamorphic-
Pole
is the place on a magnet where magnetism is the strongest.
Core
Below the mantle, at the center of the earth. It is made of hot iron ( it is where molten magma)
Meter
Use for average distances (desk top, football field)
Appendages
is a body part if a living organism that grows out forn or is attached to the main body. Ex: Claws of a bear.
Melting point ( Liquid to a Gas)
A substance melts and boils at the same point. Water boils and condenses at 212 degrees F.
Spring scale
used to measure weight against gravity.
Precipitation
is the moisture that falls from clouds to the ground. When the drops of water or ice become to large , they fall rain.
magnetism
is the pulling or pushing force that exists around a magnet . This force attracts iron and steel.
Cold-Blooded
are vertebrates whose body temperature stays about the same as the temperature of their surroundings.
Science assessment
Should reflect the instruction that occurred. Students learning context. (science journals, portfolios, Student conferences, technology, concept maps, observation, presentations.
Graduated Cylinder for measuring the volume of liquids
are accurate measuring devices.
New Moon
The entire half of the moon facing the earth is dark. The moon is not visible from the earth.
Omnivore
is a consumer that eats both producers and other consumers. Ex: Humans
Circle Graph
Displays the data as parts of a whole fraction or percentages. The entire circle represents 100%.
Concave Lens
is a lens that is thinner in the middle than at the ends. Used to se objects appear smaller / used in cameras.
Thermometer
How air temperature is measured. Warm air around the thermometer heats the liquid inside the liquid expands and moves up the tube. As the temperature cools, the liquid contracts and moves down the thermometer.
Light and matter
Visible light passes through some types of matter, but not all. Three types: transparent, translucent, and opaque.
Thermosphere
Space shuttle orbits in this altitude.
Forms of Energy
Mechanical, chemical, heat, nuclear, radiant and electrical.
Pesticides
Poisons that are spray on plants. the unbalance the food web.
life cycle of a frog
chromosomes
are found in a cell's nucleus. They are made of the chemical DNA.
Asexual reproduction
One-cell organisms can reproduce or making new individuals , by splitting in two and separating. The parent cell no longer exist. Offspring's cell are identical to each other because they have identical chromosomes. (Amoeba, cloning)
Standard tools of measurement
Rulers, meter sticks, Balance scale, Graduated Cylinder, clocks, calculator.
Galileo Galilei
Showed that all objects fall at the same speed and that all matter has inertia. Used telescope to see the rings around Saturn and the moons in Jupiter.
One Kilometer
1000 meters
Dependent/responding variable
Is a variable that changes as a result of the manipulation.
Hydrosphere
is the part of the earth's surface that us water. covers about 75% of the earth, oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers.
Gas
Has no shape or volume of its own.
Discovery Approach
Children are permitted to investigate on their own with the teacher acting as a process facilitator. During discovery, the children develop their own problems and methodology. Questions are also formulated for further investigations.
is any structure or behavior that helps a living organism to survive in its environment and compete for available resources. , such as food, water, and shelter. Adaptation occurs over time.
insulator
is a material through which an electric current does pass easily. ex; glass , plastic, and rubber.
Two types of Animal Reproduction
Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
Air pressure
Air temperature causes changes in air pressure. warm air rises, pushing down on the earth with less pressure, forming a low pressure area. Cold air is denser and sinks, pushing down with greater pressure and forming a high pressure area.
Factors that affect weather and climate
Sun, Greenhouse effect, tilt of the earth, Bodies of water, ocean currents, wind, shapes of the land, natural events
Condensation
Water vapor rises into the air, cools and then condenses into drop of water. As the water vapor condenses, clouds are formed.
Insects
Have three body sections, three pairs of legs and one pair of antenna. The three parts are Head, thorax and abdomen. They can fly and it is an insect.
Ocean currents
are like rivers of water that move through the oceans. The temperature of the water in the currents can affect the climate of the land they are near.
Weight
Is a measure of the gravitational force acting on an object.
How plants get energy within an ecosystem
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants interact with light energy from the sun to make sugar. Chlorophyll is the green substance in plants that traps light energy from the sun. Plants use light energy, carbon dioxide and water to make sugar.
Charles Darwin
Proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection.

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