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Chemistry: Atomic Theory

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John Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) Elements composed of tiny individ. particles 2) Atoms of same element are identical 3) Atoms of different elements combine in ratios or small whole numbers 4) Reactions occur when atoms are joined but the atoms of one element are not changed into atoms of another
4 exceptions to electron configuration
d4, d9, f6, f13
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Cannot know velocity and position at the same time. (Golf ball in dark room)
Dalton's atom model
Solid Sphere
Excited electron
An electron that is in a higher energy level than its own
Why don't electrons fall back to the nucleus?
As it gets closer to nucleus, the wavelength grows shorter and frequency goes up. It gives off energy- the energy enables it to push back.
____ magnet strength, _____ deflection
Stronger, more
Formula C = ...?
C = Lambda nu | C=
Rutherford figured out that, because the particles defelected,
There was an area in the atom called a nucleus and the rest of the atom was just space
6 flavors of quarks
up, top, charm +2/3 | |||||||||||||||||||| | down, bottom, strange -1/3
___ velocity, ____ deflection
High, less
Photoelectric effect- Albert Einstein
-Electrons are ejected from the surface of metal when ligh shines on it.
Magnetic Quantum #
Describes the orientation in space around three axes. (Position.) s- 0,.p - 1, 0, 1. d -2, -1,0,1,2. f -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3.
Crest
Top of wave
How did Becquerel discover radiation?
Uranium and photographic paper, developed it and found that the uranium had got on it. Realized sunlight wasnt the link
Amplitude
Wave height and intensity
Hadrons
Consist of smaller particles called QUARKS. Example, proton has several quarks.
Principle Quantum #
Describes the energy level of the electron. (1-7) Symbol: n
Aufbau Principle
Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy level availiable until all electrons are accounted for. aka Fill in electrons acorrding to order from lowest to highest
Emission Spectrum
As electron jumps back it will emit the energy again. Energy released. Releases light/energy.
Democritus said that _____ was the smallest particle of matter
Atomos
Quanta
Discreet amt of energy
Lymen Series... gives off
Any electron that falls from higher energy level to the first. Gives off UV light
Modern Atom Model- Electron cloud- explain
Electrons are found in specific regions around the nucleus (Probability)
Dalton discovered the ____________________.
Mass to charge ratio of an electron
As Energy ____ frequency _____-
Up, up - Directly proportional
Speed of light =
3.00* 10^8 m/s
Mass of an electron
9.11 * 10 ^-28 g
Octect Rule
Outermost energy level (valence shell) can only hold a max of eight electrons
Rutherford's experiment:
Gold foil experiment
Rydberg Equation: If Nf is larger than Ni, delta E is _____
positive
Photon
A unit of light energy which carries a quanta
____ particle mass, ____ deflection
Large, Less
Shape of S orbital and amt
Spherical, 1
____ amt of plate charge, ____ deflection
High, more
Four essences were ____, ___, ____, ____
Air, water, fire, earth
Alchemists
Middle Age's chemists. Wanted to change base metals into gold. Started the basis of modern chemistry
Frequency
# of waves in a minute
Speed of light
3.00 * 10^8 m/s | 3.00 * 10^10 cm/s
Shape of P orbital and amt
Peanut, 3
Antoine Lavoisier (1700) discovered _____
French- Oxygen atom
As wavelength ____ frequency ______
Decreases, increases (Inversely proportional)
Henri Becquerel discovered ____-
Radiation
Bohr's model
Planetary
Pauli Exclusion Principle
An orbital can hold a maximum two electrons which much have different spins.
Paschen Series
From higher to third energy level -> Infrared
Thomsom's atom model
Plum pudding/cookie
Ground State
The lowest energy level
Modern Atomic Theory
1) Atoms of the same element are chemically identical 2) Atoms of the same element may have different masses (isotope) 3) Atoms of different elements may have the same mass 4) Atoms are not subdivided reactions (cannot have half of an atom)
Shape of F oribtal and amt
Bunch of balloons and Peanut in two bagels, 9
Absorbtion Spectrum
Energy absorbed, so cannot see. (colors) Opposite to Emission Spectrum.
Hund's Rule
Electrons occupy equal energy obitals so that the maximum number of unpaired electrons results
Rydberg Equation: If Nf is smaller than Ni, delta E is _____
Negative
Rydberg Equation
DeltaE = K(1/2ni2 - 1-2nf) Ni = Initial, Nf is final.
Modern Atom Model
Electron cloud
Belmar Series
From higher to second energy level - > Visible light
Electromagnetic Radiation list, low to high
Radio & Tv | Microwaves | Infrared | VISIBLE ROYGBIV LIGHT | UV Light | X-Ray | Gamma Ray
____ particle charge, ____ deflection
High, more
Wavelength
Distance between similar points on two consecutive waves
Trough
Bottom of wave
Nuclear attractions: Three types of charges (ways to hold on...?)
Proton - Proton, Proton - Neutron, Neutron - Neutron
Atoms release light/energy by...
electrons get excited, falls back down, and releases energy/light
Rutherford's model
"Swarm of Bees"
Leptons
Elementary particles with no evidence of being made of smaller particles. Example: Electron, muons, neutrinos,taumeson,
Discovered the neutron
Chadwick
Light has a dual nature
Both a wave (energy) and a particle
Obital Quantum #
Describes the shape of e- cloud. Symbol: Symbol: l s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3
Rutherford discovered the ____ _____
Alpha Particle
Shape of D oribtal and amt
Flower and Peanut in a bagel, 5
Thomsom said the matrix of the atom was _____ so _____ will stickl
Positive, electrons
Spin Quantum #
The direction of spin of an electron. -1/2, +1/2.
Millikan used _____ to discover _____
Used the oil spray to discover mass of an electron
Atomic Weight
Average mass of all the isotopes and the reative abundance calculating Atomic Weight

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